Difference between revisions of "Warden®/9.2"

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  {{pound}} FreeBSD release to use
  {{pound}} FreeBSD release to use
== Managing Software Not Available in Packages Tab == <!--T:141-->
The rest of this section demonstrates how to install and upgrade software that is not available in a jail's "Packages" tab.
Note that the software you install into a traditional jail ''' ''will not'' ''' be available to your PC-BSD® system. In other words, software installed into a traditional jail is meant to be used within the jail, or, in the case of network applications such as a web server, to be configured to be available over the network.
=== Traditional or Ports Jail=== <!--T:144-->
The commands demonstrated in this section can also be used to install software inside a ports jail. The software you install into a ports jail will be available to your PC-BSD® system.  ''' ''If you are interested in installing software on your PC-BSD® system that is not available as a PBI or you wish to learn how to use FreeBSD packages and ports without affecting the software that came with your PC-BSD® system, install the software within a ports jail.'' '''
{{note|icon64=to manage software in a Linux jail, use the package management system provided by that Linux distro. For example, in Debian Squeeze, use {{citelink|wp|url=Aptitude_(software)|aptitude}}.}}
''' ''All of the commands in this section assume that you have highlighted the jail that you wish to install software into and clicked ''Tools'' ➜ ''Launch Terminal''.'' '''
==== Installing FreeBSD Packages ==== <!--T:148-->
The quickest and easiest way to install software inside the jail is to install a FreeBSD package. A FreeBSD package is pre-compiled, meaning that it contains all the binaries and dependencies required for the software to run on a FreeBSD system.
[[File:Electric.png|thumb|393px|'''Figure 8.21m: FreshPorts Search Result''']]
When dealing with FreeBSD packages, the following command line utilities are used:
* '''pkg_add:''' used to install packages. If you have never used this command before, take the time to read '''man pkg_add''' to get an overview of how this command works.
* '''pkg_delete:''' used to uninstall packages. If you have never used this command before, take the time to read '''man pkg_delete''' to get an overview of how this command works.
* '''pkg_info:''' used to get more information about the packages that have been installed. This command provides many useful switches so it is well worth your time to read through '''man pkg_info''' and to experiment with various switches.
A lot of software has been ported to FreeBSD (currently nearly 24,000 applications) and most of that software is available as a package. The best way to find FreeBSD software is to use {{citelink|url=http://freshports.org|FreshPorts.org}}. If you are using the firefox PBI, it provides a FreshPorts search plugin for quickly finding software.
Figure 8.21m shows the search results for electric; the search was performed using the firefox plugin.
Each listing in the search results includes the name of the software, the version, a description, the category (e.g. security), the email address of the port's maintainer, a CVSWeb link containing the details of the port, and a link to the software's main website. Each entry includes the command used to compile the port (as described in the next section) and the '''pkg_add -r''' command used to install the package.
To install a package, use the '''pkg_add''' command using the remote ('''-r''') switch to install the specified package from the FreeBSD packages repository. For example, this command will install the electric package:
{{txtbox|box='''pkg_add -r electric'''
Fetching {{ftp}}ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/amd64/packages-9-stable/Latest/
electric.tbz... Done.}}
You should receive a message indicating that the package was successfully fetched, then your prompt back. Depending upon what is already installed within the jail, your messages may indicate that dependent packages were also fetched. Some packages include post-installation instructions that will be displayed in the message. Occasionally you will see a warning about a version mismatch; you can ignore these as they do not affect the installation of the package. Unless the message includes an error indicating that the system was unable to fetch or install the package, the installation was successful.
You can confirm that the installation was successful by querying the package database:
{{txtbox|box='''pkg_info -ox electric'''
Information for electric-7.0.0_4:
Most packages install their binary (executable) in ''/usr/local/bin'' and configuration files in ''/usr/local/etc/''. You can find out exactly what was installed using the '''-L''' (list) switch. If you include '''-x''', you will not have to type in the entire name and version of the package as '''pkg_info''' will match any installed packages containing your query string.
{{txtbox|box='''pkg_info -Lx electric | more'''
Information for electric-7.0.0_4:
<snip rest of output>}}
The '''pkg_delete''' command can be used to uninstall either a package or a port. If you include the '''-x''' switch, you do not have to give the full name and version of the software. Be sure to give enough of a name so that you do not inadvertently uninstall other software matching the name:
{{txtbox|box='''pkg_delete -x electric'''}}
If you just get the command prompt back, the delete was successful. You can verify this by checking that the package no longer exists in the package database:
{{txtbox|box='''pkg_info | grep electric'''}}
You will just get your prompt back if no installed software matches that name.
If the software has other applications that depend upon it, '''pkg_delete''' will refuse to uninstall it. If you wish to override this setting, you can use the '''-xf''' switch to force the delete. However, use the force switch with caution as forcibly removing software can adversely affect the applications that required it as a dependency.
==== Compiling FreeBSD Ports ==== <!--T:169-->
Typically, software is installed using the '''pkg_add''' command. Occasionally you may prefer to compile the port yourself. Compiling the port offers the following advantages:
* not every port has an available package. This is usually due to licensing restrictions or known, unaddressed security vulnerabilities.
* sometimes the package is out-of-date and you need a feature that became available in the newer version.
* some ports provide compile options that are not available in the pre-compiled package. These options are used to add additional features or to strip out the features you do not need.
Compiling the port yourself has the following dis-advantages:
* it takes time. Depending upon the size of the application, the amount of dependencies, the amount of CPU and RAM on the system, and the current load on the PC-BSD® system, the amount of time can range from a few minutes to a few hours or even to a few days.
{{note|width=48.5|align=left|icon64=if the port does not provide any compile options, save your time and the PC-BSD system's resources by using the '''pkg_add''' command instead.}}
FreshPorts will indicate if a port has any configurable compile options. To continue the example shown in Figure 8.18m, Figure 8.18n shows the configurable options for electric.
[[File:Freshports1.png|thumb|393px|'''Figure 8.21n Viewing a Port's Information at FreshPorts''']]
Before you can compile a port, you must first install the ports collection into the jail. If you did not choose to do so when the jail was created, you can install the ports collection using the following command. You will know that you have the ports collection when ''/usr/ports/'' is populated with many subdirectories, each representing a category of software.
{{txtbox|box='''portsnap fetch extract'''}}
If you compile additional software at a later date, you should make sure that the ports collection is up-to-date using this command:
{{txtbox|box='''portsnap fetch update'''
Ports tree is already up to date.}} 
Once you have the ports collection installed into your ports jail, change to the subdirectory of the application you wish to install, for instance ''/usr/ports/cad/electric'', and issue the command to make and install the application. FreshPorts provides the location to '''cd''' into and the '''make''' command to run.
{{txtbox|box='''cd /usr/ports/cad/electric'''
'''make install clean'''}}
If the port's ''Makefile'' includes OPTIONS, a configure screen will be displayed. The example in Figure 8.21o shows the options for the openvpn port.
[[File:Openvpn.png|thumb|393px|'''Figure 8.21o: Configuration Options from a Port's Makefile''']]
To change an option's setting, use the arrow keys to highlight the option, then press the ''' ''spacebar'' ''' to toggle the selection. Once you are finished, press enter. The port will begin to compile and install.
{{note|width=48.5%|icon64=if you change your mind, the configuration screen will not be displayed again should you stop and restart the build. Type '''make config && make install clean''' if you need to change your selected options.}}
If the port has any dependencies with options, their configuration screens will be displayed and the compile will pause until it receives your input. It is a good idea to keep an eye on the compile until it finishes and you are returned to the command prompt.
How long the compile will take can range from a few minutes to many hours, depending upon the size of the application and the speed of your system. The '''make''' command will spit out many messages, most of which you can ignore as they are simply an indication of which source is currently being compiled.  Occasionally, '''make''' will encounter an error and will stop with an error message. If the solution for the error is not obvious to you, try a web search for the keywords in the error message.
{{note|icon64=sometimes due to licensing reasons a port will require that a file be downloaded manually and placed into the ''/usr/ports/distfiles/'' directory. After downloading and copying this file to that directory, repeat the '''make''' command to finish the compile.}}
Once the port is installed, it is registered in the same package database that manages packages. This means that you can use the '''pkg_info''' command to determine what was installed, as described in the previous section.
=== Keeping Software Up-to-Date === <!--T:193-->
Any software that you install using the "Packages" tab within Warden® can be kept up-to-date using [[Update Manager]]. Simply highlight the jail and go to ''Tools'' ➜ ''Check for Updates''. Update Manager will also indicate when security patches and newer versions of the operating system are available and should be used to keep the jail's operating system patched and up-to-date.
However, you will need to manually upgrade any software that you installed using '''pkg_add''' or any ports that you compiled yourself within a traditional or ports jail. In order to do this, you will need to:
# [[#Update the Ports Collection | Update the ports collection so that it is in sync with the latest version]].<br>
# [[#Install an Upgrading Utility | Install the '''portmaster''' utility which is used to upgrade FreeBSD packages and ports]].<br>
# [[#Read ''/usr/ports/UPDATING'' | Read ''/usr/ports/UPDATING'' so that you are aware of any gotchas ''' ''before'' ''' you attempt to upgrade the software]].<br>
# [[#Perform the Upgrade | Perform the upgrade]].
These steps are demonstrated in more detail in this section.
==== Update the Ports Collection ==== <!--T:197-->
If you used '''pkg_add''' to install the software, you may not have the ports collection installed within the jail. This is the case if ''/usr/ports'' does not exist or is empty. To install the latest version of the ports collection, use this command:
{{txtbox|box='''portsnap fetch extract'''}}
If the ports collection is already installed, use this command to make sure that it is up-to-date:
{{txtbox|box='''portsnap fetch update'''}}
==== Install an Upgrading Utility ==== <!--T:202-->
At this time, the '''portmaster''' command is the recommended utility for upgrading software installed using packages or ports. To install this program within the jail, use this command:
{{txtbox|box='''pkg_add -r portmaster'''
==== Read ''/usr/ports/UPDATING'' ==== <!--T:205-->
Before upgrading installed software, ''' ''always read through ''/usr/ports/UPDATING'' first.'' ''' This file contains any gotchas or special instructions that are needed to upgrade certain ports. Ports maintainers add to this file as new gotchas are discovered. However, you will want to start reading the file at the entry that is closest to the date that your version of PC-BSD® was released (if you have not upgraded anything yet) or the date you last upgraded, and read your way up to the top of the file. For example, this entry indicates that FreeBSD 9.0 was released on January 12:
&nbsp;AFFECTS: Nobody
&nbsp;AUTHOR: wxs@FreeBSD.org
&nbsp;FreeBSD 9.0 released.}}
As you read through the entries from that date up to the last entry at the beginning of the file, make note of any entries that match the software that you have installed. If you are unsure of what software is installed, this command will tell you:
{{txtbox|box='''pkg_info {{pipe}} more'''}}
Occasionally, a software upgrade (e.g. perl) may affect many applications. If you come across such entries that affect your installed software, be sure to follow the instructions carefully.
If your software is up-to-date and you prefer to be notified as new entries are added to ''/usr/ports/UPDATING'', consider subscribing to its {{citelink|url=http://updating.versia.com/atom/ports|txt=RSS feed}}.
==== Perform the Upgrade ==== <!--T:210-->
After using the '''portsnap''' command to update your ports collection and reading ''/usr/ports/UPDATING'', you are ready to upgrade your installed software using the '''portmaster''' command.
The following command will look for out-dated ports and offer to upgrade them for you. If any of the software has configuration options, you will be presented with their configuration menus to make your selections.
{{txtbox|box='''portmaster -a'''
<nowiki>===>>></nowiki> Gathering distinfo list for installed ports
<nowiki>===>>></nowiki> Starting check of installed ports for available updates
<snip some output>
<nowiki>===>>></nowiki> The following actions will be taken if you choose to proceed:
&nbsp;      Upgrade mpg123-1.12.3 to mpg123-1.12.5
&nbsp;      Upgrade p5-Object-InsideOut-3.69 to p5-Object-InsideOut-3.72
&nbsp;      Upgrade linkchecker-5.3 to linkchecker-5.4
&nbsp;      Upgrade tomcat-6.0.29 to tomcat-6.0.29_1
<nowiki>===>>></nowiki> Proceed? y/n [y]}}
If you press enter to accept the default of yes, the upgrade will begin. As each upgrade completes, you will be asked if you want to delete the source for the old version of the software (which can save disk space). If you do not want to be prompted, include '''-D''' or '''-d''' with the '''portmaster''' command. There are many switches available for '''portmaster''' so it is a good idea to '''man portmaster''' to see which ones interest you.

Revision as of 10:40, 21 August 2013

(Sorry for the inconvenience)

Warden® is an easy to use, graphical jail[1] management program.
Figure 8.21b: Initial Warden® Screen
Using Warden®, it is possible to create multiple, isolated virtual instances of FreeBSD which can be used to run services such as Apache, PHP, or MySQL in a secure manner. Each jail is considered to be a unique FreeBSD operating system and whatever happens in that jail will not affect your operating system or other jails running on the PC-BSD® system.

Some of the features in Warden® include the ability to:

  • create three types of jails: a traditional FreeBSD jail for running network services, a (less secure) ports jail for safely installing and running FreeBSD ports/packages from your PC-BSD® system, and a Linux jail for installing Linux
  • set multiple IPv4 and IPv6 addresses per jail
  • quickly install common network server applications on a per-jail basis
  • update installed software on a per-jail basis
  • manage user accounts on a per-jail basis
  • manage ZFS snapshots on a per-jail basis
  • export a jail which can be then be imported into the same or a different jail


Creating a Jail using the GUI Version of Warden®

Warden® can be started by clicking on its icon in Control Panel or by typing pc-su warden gui from the command line. You will be prompted for your password as administrative access is needed to create and manage jails.

The first time you start Warden®, you will be prompted to set the network interface as your jails will not work if the wrong interface is configured. Click Yes to set the interface using the screen shown in Figure 8.21a. You can access this screen at a later time from JailsConfiguration.

Figure 8.21a: Warden® Configuration

This screen allows you to configure the following:

  • Jail Network Interface: all jails created within Warden® share the same physical interface. Use the drop-down menu to select the network interface to be used by the jails.
  • Jail Directory: contains all of the created jails where each jail has its own sub-directory named after its IP address. By default, it is /usr/jails. If you change this directory, make sure the location has sufficient space to hold the jails.
  • Temp Directory: used when exporting and importing jails. Make sure that the directory has sufficient space to create a tar file of the jail and its contents.

Once you click the "Save" button to save your interface configuration, you will be presented with the main Warden® configuration screen, shown in Figure 8.21b.

To create your first jail, click the "+" button or go to FileNew Jail. A jail creation wizard, seen in Figure 8.21c, will launch.

Figure 8.21c: Creating the New Jail

The first screen in the jail creation wizard will prompt you for the following information:

Hostname: you can change the default of "Jailbird" to another value. The hostname must be unique on your network. Use a hostname that reminds you of the type of jail and your reason for creating it.

IPV4 Address: input the IPv4 address to be used by the jail and access its contents. Choose an address on your network that is not already in use by another computer or jail and which will not conflict with the address range assigned by a DHCP server.

IPv6 Address: if you plan to access the jail and its contents using IPv6, check the "IPv6 Address" box and input an IPv6 address that is not already in use by another computer or jail on your network.

When finished, click "Next" to select the type of jail, as shown in Figure 8.21d:

Figure 8.21d: Select the Type of Jail

There are three types of jails supported by Warden®:

Traditional Jail: select this type if you are creating the jail in order to install and run network services. For example, this type of jail is appropriate if you wish to run a web server or a database which is accessible to other systems on a network or over the Internet. This is the most secure type of jail as it is separate from the PC-BSD® host and any other jails that you create using Warden®. By default, FreeBSD's next generation of package management, known as pkgng, and the command line versions of the PC-BSD® utilities are added to a default FreeBSD installation. If you do not plan to use these tools, uncheck the box “Install PKGNG and PC-BSD utilities”. If you have already created a jail template, select the desired operating system version from the “Jail Version” drop-down menu.

Ports Jail: select this type of jail if your intention is to install software using FreeBSD packages and ports and you wish to have access to that software from your PC-BSD® system or if you plan to install any GUI applications within the jail. This type of jail is less secure then a traditional jail as applications are shared between the jail and the PC-BSD® system. This means that you should not use this type of jail to install services that will be available to other machines over a network.

Linux Jail: select this type of jail if you would like to install a Linux operating system within a jail.

The remaining screens will differ depending upon the type of jail that you select.

Traditional or Ports Jail

If you select "Traditional Jail", you will be prompted to set the root password as seen in Figure 8.21e.

Figure 8.21e: Setting the Traditional Jail's Root Password

Input and confirm the password then press "Next" to see the screen shown in Figure 8.21f. If you instead select to create a "Ports Jail", you will go directly to Figure 8.21f.

Figure 8.21f: Select the Jail Options

This screen allows you to install the following options:

Include system source: if you check this box, make sure that /usr/src/ exists on the PC-BSD system as the source is copied to the jail from this location. If it is not installed, use Control PanelSystem ManagerTasks ➜ Fetch System Source to install it.

Include ports tree: if you check this box, the latest version of the ports tree will be downloaded into /usr/ports/ of the jail. This will allow you to compile FreeBSD ports within this jail.

Start jail at system bootup: if this box is checked, the jail will be started (become available) whenever you boot your main system. If the box is not checked, you can manually start the jail whenever you wish to access it using Warden®.

Once you have made your selections, click the "Finish" button to create the jail. Warden® will display a pop-up window containing status messages as it downloads the files it needs and creates and configures the new jail.

Once Warden® is finished creating the jail, a message should appear at the bottom of the pop-up window indicating that the jail has been successfully created. Click the "Close" button to return to the main screen.

Linux Jail

If you select the "Linux Jail" and click "Next", you will be prompted to set the root password as seen in Figure 8.21e. After inputting the password, the wizard will prompt you to select a Linux install script, as seen in Figure 8.21g.

Figure 8.21g: Select the Linux Distribution to Install

The installation script is used to install the specified Linux distribution. At this time, installation scripts for Debian Squeeze and for Gentoo are provided. Scripts for other distros will be added over time.

NOTE: A Linux installation script is simply a shell script which invokes a Linux network installation. In the case of Debian Squeeze, it invokes the debootstrap command.

Once you select the install script, the wizard will ask if you would like to start the jail at boot time as seen in Figure 8.21h.

Figure 8.21h: Linux Jail Options

Click the "Finish" button to begin the Linux installation.

Configuring Existing Jails From the GUI

Once a jail is created, an entry for the jail will be added to the "Installed Jails" box and the tabs within Warden® will become available. Each entry indicates the jail's hostname, whether or not it is currently running, and whether or not any updates are available for the meta-packages installed within the jail. The buttons beneath the "Installed Jails" box can be used to start/stop the highlighted jail, configure the jail, add a new jail, or delete the highlighted jail.

If you highlight a jail and click the configure (wrench) icon, the screen shown in Figure 8.21i will open.

Figure 8.21i: Jail Configuration Options


The Options tab has one checkbox for enabling or disabling VNET/VIMAGE support. This option provides that jail with its own, independent networking stack. This allows the jail to do its own IP broadcasting, which is required by some applications. However, it breaks some other applications. If an application within a jail is having trouble with networking, try changing this option to see if it fixes the issue.

The IPv4 tab is shown in Figure 8.21j.

Figure 8.21j: Jail IPv4 Options


This screen allows you to configure the following:

IPv4 Address: uncheck this box if you do not want the jail to have an IPv4 address.

IPv4 Bridge Address (Requires VNET): if this box is checked, an IP address is input, and the "IPv4 Default Router" box is left unchecked, the bridge address will be used as the default gateway for the jail. If the "IPv4 Default Router" address is also configured, it will be used as the default gateway address and the bridge address will be used as just another address that is configured and reachable. This option requires the "Enable VNET/VIMAGE support" checkbox to be checked in the Options tab.

IPv4 Default Router: check this box and input an IP address if the jail needs a different default gateway address than that used by the PC-BSD® system. This option requires the "Enable VNET/VIMAGE support" checkbox to be checked in the Options tab.

The IPv6 tab is shown in Figure 8.21k.

Figure 8.21k: Jail IPv6 Options


This screen allows you to configure the following:

IPv6 Address: check this box if you want the jail to have an IPv6 address.

IPv6 Bridge Address (Requires VNET): if this box is checked, an IPv6 address is input, and the "IPv6 Default Router" box is left unchecked, the bridge address will be used as the default gateway for the jail. If the "IPv6 Default Router" address is also configured, it will be used as the default gateway address and the bridge address will be used as just another address that is configured and reachable. This option requires the "Enable VNET/VIMAGE support" checkbox to be checked in the Options tab.

IPv6 Default Router: check this box and input an IPv6 address if the jail needs a different default gateway address than that used by the PC-BSD® system. This option requires the "Enable VNET/VIMAGE support" checkbox to be checked in the Options tab.

The Aliases tab is shown in Figure 8.21l.

Figure 8.21l: Jail Aliases Options


Click the drop-down menu to see all of the options shown in Figure 8.2l. An alias allows you to add additional IP addresses to an interface. Select the type of address you would like to add an alias to, click the Add button, type in the IP address to add and click OK.

The Permissions tab is shown in Figure 8.21m. This screen can be used to easily enable or disable the sysctl values that are available for jails.

Figure 8.21m: Jail Permissions


The rest of this section provides an overview of how to manage jails using the tabs listed in the bottom half of the Warden® interface.

Info Tab

The "Info" tab, as seen in the example in Figure 8.21n, provides an overview of a jail's configuration. If you have created multiple jails, the "Info" tab displays the configuration of the currently highlighted jail.

Figure 8.21n: Info Tab of Warden®

In the example shown in Figure 8.21n, three jails have been created: a traditional jail, a ports jail, and Debian Squeeze has been installed into a Linux jail.

The "Info" tab contains the following information:

  • Jail Type: will indicate if the jail is a Traditional, Ports, or Linux jail.
  • Size on Disk: indicates the amount of space being used by the jail. The jail itself takes up about 300MB of space, source is about 300MB, and ports are about 850MB.
  • Start at boot: a status of "Enabled" indicates that the jail will automatically start when the system reboots. "Disabled" means that you will manually start the jail as needed.
  • Active Connections: will list the number of active connections to the jail (e.g. through ssh or one of the running services).
  • IPs: lists the jail's IP address as well as any configured aliases.
  • Listening on Ports: indicates which ports are currently listening for connections.

You can sort the jail listing by clicking on the "Jail", "Status", or "Updates" header name. The "Updates" column will indicate if a software or system update is available for a jail.

Tools Tab

The "Tools" tab, shown in Figure 8.21o, allows you to manage common configuration tasks within a jail.

WARNING Make sure that the desired jail is highlighted when using the "Tools" tab.
Figure 8.21o: Tools Tab for the Highlighted Jail

This tab provides the following buttons:

  • Package Manager: opens Package Manager so that you can install meta-packages within the specified traditional or ports jail. Software installed using this method will be tracked by Update Manager, meaning that Warden® will be notified when updates are available for the installed software. Meta-packages are not available for Linux jails meaning that this tab will be greyed out if a Linux jail is highlighted.
  • User Administrator: opens User Manager so that you can manage the highlighted jail's user accounts and groups. The title bar will indicate that you are "Editing Users for Jail:Jailname". Note that any users and groups that you have created on your PC-BSD® system will not be added to a traditional jail as each traditional jail has its own users and groups. However, a ports jail has access to the users and groups that exist on the PC-BSD® system, yet the users you create on a ports jail will only be available within the ports jail. This button is not available if a Linux jail is highlighted.
  • Service Manager: opens Service Manager so that you can view which services are running in the jail and configure which services should start when the jail is started. Note that this button is not available if a Linux jail is highlighted.
  • Launch Terminal: opens a terminal with the root user logged into the jail. This allows you to administer the jail from the command line. This button will be greyed out if the highlighted jail is not running. You can start a jail by right-clicking its entry and selecting "Start this Jail" from the menu or by clicking the start jail icon (a blue arrow icon below the list of jails).
  • Check for Updates: launches Update Manager to determine if any of the jail's meta-packages have newer versions available. Update Manager will also indicate if system updates are available to be installed into the jail. Note that this button is not available if a Linux jail is highlighted. By default, Update Manager automatically checks for updates every 12 hours to see if there are any system updates or if any of the applications installed using "Package Manager" within a ports or traditional jail have newer versions. If an update is found, the text "Updates available!" will appear in the "Updates" column for that jail.
  • Export Jail: launches a pop-up window prompting you to choose the directory in which to save a backup of the jail (and all of its software, configuration, and files) as a .wdn file. Creating the .wdn file may take some time, especially if you have installed src, ports, or software.

Snapshots Tab

The “Snapshots” tab, shown in Figure 8.21p, is used to create and manage ZFS snapshots within the currently highlighted jail. The ZFS snapshot feature can be used to make point in time filesystem backups of jails. A snapshot is essentially a picture of what the filesystem looked like at that point in time. Snapshots are space efficient in that they take up zero space when created and the snapshot only grows in size as files contained within the snapshot are modified after the snapshot was taken. In other words, ZFS manages the changes between snapshots, providing a way to return to what a file looked like at the time a snapshot was taken.

Since jails share the filesystem used by PC-BSD®, any type of jail, including a Linux jail, can take advantage of this ZFS feature.

Figure 8.21p: Snapshots Tab for the Highlighted Jail

To create a snapshot of the jail, click the "+Add" button. A snapshot indicating the date and time will be added to the slider bar. If you create multiple snapshots at different times, use the slider bar to select a snapshot.

Once you have created a snapshot, the following actions can be used to manage the snapshot. Make sure that the desired snapshot is highlighted in the slider bar before clicking these buttons:

  • Restore: returns the system to what it looked like at the time the snapshot was taken. Think about what you wish to accomplish before using this option as any changes to files that occurred after the snapshot was taken will be lost. Unless you really want to go back to this point in time, this is probably not what you want to do.
  • Mount: if you wish to retrieve some files or directories from a snapshot, use this button. Once mounted, a message will indicate where on the PC-BSD® system the jail's contents have been mounted.
  • Unmount: when you are finished accessing the contents of the mounted snapshot, click this button to unmount the snapshot.
  • Add: use this button to create additional snapshots.
  • Remove: use this button to remove the highlighted snapshot.

This screen also allows you to schedule automatic snapshots. To enable this feature, check the box "Scheduled Snapshots". Use the drop-down menu to set the frequency to daily or hourly. You can also type in or use the arrows to configure the number of days to keep each snapshot.

Right-Click Menu

If you highlight a jail, its right-click menu contains the following options:

  • Start or Stop this Jail: allows you to start a jail (if it is currently not running) or to stop a jail (if it is currently running). You will not be able to access a jail that has not been started. The icon next to the jail will change to indicate the current status.
  • Toggle Autostart: toggles a jail's Autostart between "Disabled" (does not automatically start when the PC-BSD® system is booted) and "Enabled" (will start the jail when the PC-BSD® system is booted). The "Info" tab will be updated to indicate the new "Start at boot" status. Note that toggling autostart will not affect the current running status of the jail (i.e. it does not start or stop the jail right now) as autostart is only used when the system boots.
  • Export jail to .wdn file: allows you to save the jail (and all of its software, configuration, and files) as a .wdn file. This allows you to quickly clone a pre-configured jail to a new jail on either the same or another PC-BSD® system. The exported jail will end with a .wdn extension and the filename will be the IP address of the jail. When exporting a jail, a pop-up window will prompt you to choose the directory in which to store the backup. A progress bar will indicate that the export is in progress. Creating the .wdn file may take some time, especially if you have installed src, ports, or software.
WARNING You should close all network connections to the jail before exporting it as Warden® will need to stop the jail in order to back it up. If your jail is running services (e.g. a webserver), export the jail at a time that will least impact network connections to the jail.
  • Delete Jail: removes the jail and all of its contents from the PC-BSD® system. You will be prompted to confirm this action.

Importing a Jail

The "File" menu can be used to create a new jail, import a jail, create templates, or exit Warden®.

If you click FileImport Jail you will be prompted to browse to the location of a previously created .wdn file. After selecting the file, you will then see the screen shown in Figure 8.21q.

Figure 8.21q: Importing a Jail


If you are creating a new jail on the same system that still has the original jail installed, check the "Change IP Address" box and input an unused IP address for the new jail. Then, check the box "Change Hostname" and input an unused hostname for the new jail. However, if you have deleted the original jail or need to restore that same jail on another computer (for example, there was a hardware failure on the system containing the original jail), you can choose to leave both boxes unchecked and to reuse the same IP address and hostname. Once you press OK, Warden® will recreate the jail with all of the original settings. Whether or not those settings include the original IP address and hostname depends upon your selections.

Using Template Manager

The version of Warden® used in PC-BSD® 9.2 introduces a template manager for creating and managing jail templates. Once created, templates can be used when installing a new jail. A template specifies the version and architecture of FreeBSD to be used as the operating system running in the jail. Templates have been tested from FreeBSD versions 4.1.1 to FreeBSD-CURRENT. Until you create your own templates and specify them during jail creation, the default version and architecture of the operating system used in the jail will be the same as that running on the PC-BSD® system.

To create a template, click File ➜ Template Manager to see the screen shown in Figure 8.21r.

Figure 8.21r: Template Manager


The default icon will indicate the version of TrueOS® used by the underlying PC-BSD® system. To create a new template, click the + button. In the "System Type" drop-down menu select either:

  • TrueOS: adds the command line versions of the PC-BSD® utilities to the FreeBSD base.
  • FreeBSD: uses only the FreeBSD base without any of the PC-BSD® utilities.

Press OK to see the screen shown in Figure 8.21s.

Figure 8.21s: Select the Operating System Version


If desired, change the 9.1 in this example to the release number to use. A list of available release numbers can be found here.

Press OK. In the "System Architecture" drop-down menu, select either amd64 (for 64-bit) or i386 (for 32-bit). Press OK and input a nickname for the template. Click OK and the files needed for that version will be downloaded. Once the template is created, it will appear in the Template Manager as seen in the example in Figure 8.21t.

Figure 8.21t: New Template Added


To delete a template, highlight it and click the - button. Note that Warden® will not let you delete a template if any jails exist which are using the template.

To use the template when creating a new jail, click the "Jail Version" drop-down menu shown in Figure 8.21d and select the desired template.

Using the Command Line Version of Warden®

The Warden® GUI is based on a Bourne shell script. This script can be manually run from the command line on a PC-BSD® server or by users who prefer using the command line. Advanced users can also refer to the command line version in their own scripts.

If you type warden at the command line, you will receive a summary of its usage:

Warden version 1.3
Available commands
Type in help <command> for information and usage about that command
        help -  This help file
         gui -  Launch the GUI menu
        auto -  Toggles the autostart flag for a jail
     bspkgng -  BootStrap pkgng and setup TrueOS repo
     checkup -  Check for updates to a jail
      chroot -  Launches chroot into a jail 
      create -  Creates a new jail 
     details -  Display usage details about a jail
      delete -  Deletes a jail
      export -  Exports a jail to a .wdn file
       fstab -  Start users $EDITOR on jails custom fstab
         get -  Gets options list for a jail
      import -  Imports a jail from a .wdn file
        list -  Lists the installed jails
        pkgs -  Lists the installed packages in a jail
        pbis -  Lists the installed pbi's in a jail
         set -  Sets options for a jail
       start -  Start a jail
        stop -  Stops a jail
        type -  Set the jail type (pbibox|pluginjail|portjail|standard)
    template -  Manage jail templates
   zfsmksnap -  Create a ZFS snapshot of a jail 
zfslistclone -  List clones of jail snapshots
 zfslistsnap -  List snapshots of a jail
zfsclonesnap -  Clone a jail snapshot
 zfscronsnap -  Schedule snapshot creation via cron
zfsrevertsnap - Revert jail to a snapshot
  zfsrmclone -  Remove a clone directory
   zfsrmsnap -  Remove snapshot of a jail

Each command has its own help text that describes its parameters and provides a usage example. For example, to receive help on how to use the warden create command, type:

warden help create
Warden version 1.3
Help create
Creates a new jail, with options for system source, ports and autostarting.
Available Flags:
 -32                          (Create 32bit jail on 64bit system)
 --ipv4 <ip/mask>             (Set primary IPv4 address for jail)
 --ipv6 <ip/mask>             (Set primary IPv6 address for jail)
 --src                        (Includes /usr/src system source)
 --ports                      (Includes the ports tree)
 --vanilla                    (Don't install PC-BSD pkgng repo and utilities)
 --startauto                  (Start this jail at system boot)
 --pbibox                     (Make this a pbi container)
 --portjail                   (Make this a portjail)
 --pluginjail                 (Make this a pluginjail)
 --linuxjail <script>         (Make this a linux jail and use supplied script for installation)
 --archive <tar>              (Use specified tar file for BSD jail creation)
 --linuxarchive <tar>         (Use specified tar file for Linux jail creation)
 --version <string>           (Use this instead of /etc/version)
 --template <string>          (Specify a jail template to build with)
 warden create <JAILNAME> <flags>
 warden create jailbird --ipv4 --src --ports --startauto

You do not need superuser access to use the view commands but will for any commands that create or manage a jail. The warden command will display an error message if a command requires superuser access and you currently are not the superuser. On PC-BSD®, you can put pc-su at the beginning of the warden command to be prompted for your password. On a FreeBSD server, you can type su to become superuser, then repeat the warden command.

Creating and Accessing a Jail

Before creating a jail, make sure that the correct interface is specified in /usr/local/etc/warden.conf. In this example, the default interface is set to em0:

# Network Interface for the jails to use NIC: em0

To create a jail, specify a unique IP address and hostname for the jail:

warden create jail1 --ipv4
Building new Jail... Please wait...
Boot-strapping pkgng
<snip install messages>
Extracting ports overlay data...DONE
Extracting server overlay data...DONE
Jail created at /usr/jails/jail1

Before you can access the jail, you will need to start it:

warden start jail1

As the jail starts, the SSH host keys will be generated and sshd will start. At this point, you can use the warden chroot command to access the jail from the host system. Alternately, to access the jail over the network using ssh, you will need to first create a user account.

To access the jail in order to create that user:

warden chroot jail1
Started shell session on jail1 . Type exit when finished.

Follow the prompts of the adduser script in order to create a user. When you get to the following prompt, do not press enter. Instead type in wheel so that the user can use the su command to become the superuser within the jail.

Login group is username. Invite username into other groups? [] wheel

When you are finished creating the user, you can type exit to exit the jail. Test that ssh works by specifying the username that you created:

ssh username@jail1

Managing Jails from the Command Line

Table 8.21a shows the command line equivalents to the graphical options provided by the Warden® GUI. To get usage examples for each command, insert help into the command. For example, to get help on the auto command, type warden help auto. Note that some options are only available from the command line.

Table 8.21a: Command Line and GUI Equivalents

Command Line GUI Description
auto right-click highlighted jail and click Autostart toggles the jail's autostart between Enabled and Disabled
bspkgng in the GUI, this happens automatically during jail creation unless "Install PKGNG and PC-BSD utilities" is unchecked adds the PC-BSD® utilities to an existing jail
checkup in the GUI, update checks occur automaticaly and any un-applied updates are shown in the Updates column checks for updates to either the specified jail or all jails
chroot Tools ➜ Launch Terminal opens a terminal with the root user logged into the jail
create "+" button or File ➜ New Jail creates a new jail with specified attributes
details Info tab provides an overview of specified jail's configuration
delete "-" button or right-click jail ➜ Delete Jail deletes the specified jail
export right-click ➜ Export jail to .wdn file saves the specified jail and all of its software, configuration, and files as a .wdn file.
fstab opens the jail's /etc/fstab in an editor
get configure (wrench) icon for highlighted jail lists the various IP addresses used by the jail
import File ➜ Import Jail import a previously created .wdn file
list "Installed Jails" section of GUI list all jails
pkgs Tools ➜ Package Manager lists packages installed into specified jail
pbis lists PBIs installed into specified jail
set right-click jail used to set options, addresses, aliases, and permissions in specified jail
start right-click jail ➜ Start this Jail starts the specified jail
stop right-click jail ➜ Stop this Jail stops the specified jail
type "Jail Type" during jail creation types differ as choices are pbibox, portjail, pluginjail, or standard; to create a Linux jail, instead use the linuxjail option with the create command
template File ➜ Template Manager used to create, delete, or list templates
zfsmksnap Snapshots ➜ Add creates a snapshot of specified jail
zfslistclone Snapshots ➜ Mount lists any mounted snapshot clones
zfslistsnap Snapshots lists any created snapshots
zfsclonesnap Snapshots ➜ Mount creates and mounts a snapshot clone
zfscronsnap Snapshots ➜ Scheduled Snapshots schedules ZFS snapshot creation
zfsrevertsnap Snapshots ➜ Restore restores ZFS snapshot
zfsrmclone Snapshots ➜ Unmount unmounts a mounted clone
zfsrmsnap Snapshots ➜ Remove deletes specified snapshot

The Warden® configuration file located in /usr/local/etc/warden.conf is the equivalent to Jails ➜ Configuration in the GUI. In addition, it specifies the default template to use when creating a jail.

more /usr/local/etc/warden.conf
# Configuration options for the Warden
# Network Interface for the jails to use
NIC: em0
# Directory to use for compressing / decompressing files 
WTMP: /usr/jails
# Location of the jails
JDIR: /usr/jails
# FreeBSD release to use


  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FreeBSD_jail
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