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|style="width: 32px; border: 0px #000000 solid;"|[[File:home.png|link=PC-BSD Users Handbook|Return to Table of Contents]]
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----
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{| align="left" style="margin-left:-7px; margin-right:20px; margin-top:0px; margin-bottom:5px"
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| __FORCETOC__
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| __TOC__
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[[category:testing]]
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.........(The following text and other content is lifted from another page to show how everything would fit together and can be ignored).........<br>
+
Installing PC-BSD is usually an easy process that "just works". However, sometimes you will run into a problem. This section will look at solutions to the most common installation problems.
+
  
===Network Installation Fails===
+
<!-- <noinclude>{{NavHeader|back=PC-BSD Releases|forward=Pre-Installation Tasks}}</noinclude> -->
 +
PC-BSD is based on [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BSD_UNIX BSD Unix], meaning that it is not a Linux distribution. If you have used Linux before, you will find that some features that you are used to have different names on a BSD system and that some commands are different. This section covers some of these differences.
  
When installing over the network, the PC-BSD installer will try to configure any Ethernet interfaces using DHCP. Occasionally it will fail to get an IP address and will be unable to connect to the FTP mirror to get the files needed by the installer. You will know this is the case when the mirror list shown in Figure 4.2b remains greyed out.
+
===Filesystems===
  
You can manually retry getting an IP address from the terminal. To access a terminal, right-click an area on the desktop outside of the installation window and select xterm from the menu. Type '''ifconfig''' in the terminal to find out the FreeBSD names for your interfaces. You are looking for an Ethernet entry that shows a status of active. In the example shown in Figure 3.13a, the interface ''em0'' is active but does not have an IP address.
+
BSD and Linux use different filesystems during installation. Many Linux distros use EXT2, EXT3, EXT4, or ReiserFS, while PC-BSD uses UFS or ZFS. This means that if you wish to dual-boot with Linux or access data on an external drive that has been formatted with a Linux filesystem, you will want to do a bit of research first to see if the data can be made available on both operating systems.
  
'''Figure 3.13a: Using ifconfig to Determine IP Address'''
+
Table 1.4a summarizes the various filesystems commonly used by desktop systems. Most of the desktop managers available from PC-BSD should automatically mount the following filesystems: FAT16, FAT32, EXT2, EXT3 (without journaling), EXT4 (read-only), NTFS5, NTFS6, and XFS. See [[Files and File Sharing]] for more information about available file manager utilities.
  
[[File:ifconfig.png]]
+
'''Table 1.4a: Filesystem Support Between Linux and PC-BSD'''
  
Once you know the name of the interface, use it with the '''dhclient''' command as seen in Example 3.13a.
+
{{Tbl-init|width=100%}}
 +
{{Tbl-title|width=5%|'''Filesystem'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-title|width=5%|'''Native to'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-title|width=35%|'''Type of non-native support'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-title|width=60%|'''Usage notes'''}}
 +
|-
 +
{{Tbl-cell|row=1|align=left|'''Btrfs'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-cell|row=1|Linux}}
 +
{{Tbl-cell|row=1|align=left|none}}
 +
{{Tbl-cell|row=1|align=left|[[wikipedia:Btrfs|Btrfs]]<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Btrfs</ref>, when complete, is expected to offer a feature set comparable to [[wikipedia:ZFS#FreeBSD|ZFS]]<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZFS#FreeBSD</ref>}}
 +
|-
 +
{{Tbl-cell|row=2|'''EXT2'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-cell|row=2|Linux}}
 +
{{Tbl-cell|row=2|content=r/w through [http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=ext2fs ext2fs(5)]<ref>http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=ext2fs</ref> }}
 +
{{Tbl-cell|row=2}}
 +
|-
 +
{{Tbl-cell|row=3|'''EXT3'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-cell|row=3|Linux}}
 +
{{Tbl-cell|row=3|r/w through ext2fs(5).}}
 +
{{Tbl-cell|row=3|EXT3 journaling is not supported. This means that you won't be able to mount a filesystem requiring a journal replay unless you fsck it using an external utility such as [http://www.freshports.org/sysutils/e2fsprogs/ e2fsprogs]<ref name=e2fsprogs>http://www.freshports.org/sysutils/e2fsprogs/</ref>.}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 4 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''EXT4'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|Linux}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|r/o through ext2fs(5)<br>r/o through [http://www.freshports.org/sysutils/fusefs-ext4fuse/ ext4fuse]<ref>http://www.freshports.org/sysutils/fusefs-ext4fuse/</ref>}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|Journaling is not supported. This means that you won't be able to mount a filesystem requiring a journal replay unless you fsck it using an external utility such as [http://www.freshports.org/sysutils/e2fsprogs/ e2fsprogs]<ref name=e2fsprogs/>. EXT3 filesystems converted to EXT4 may be more likely to have better results. May not work. Neither having extended attributes 'enabled' nor inodes greater than 128-bytes are supported.}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 5 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''FAT16'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|Windows}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|content=r/w through [http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=msdosfs msdosfs(5)]<ref>http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=msdosfs</ref>}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 6 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''FAT32'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|Windows}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|r/w through msdosfs(5)}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 7 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''HFS+'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|Mac OSX}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|none}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|older Mac versions might work with [http://www.freshports.org/sysutils/hfsexplorer/ hfsexplorer]<ref>http://www.freshports.org/sysutils/hfsexplorer/</ref>}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 8 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''JFS'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|Linux}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|none}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|if you are interested in journaling, choose UFS+J during installation}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 9 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''NTFS5'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|Windows}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|content=full r/o, some limitations on r/w, via [http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=mount_ntfs mount_ntfs(8)]<ref>http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=mount_ntfs</ref>;<br>full r/w through [http://www.tuxera.com/community/ntfs-3g-manual/ ntfs-3g(8)]<ref>http://www.tuxera.com/community/ntfs-3g-manual/</ref>}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|PC-BSD uses ntfs-3g}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 10 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''NTFS6'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|Windows}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|r/w through ntfs-3g(8)}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 11 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''ReiserFS'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|Linux}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|content=r/o through [http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=reiserfs reiserfs(5)]<ref>http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=reiserfs</ref>}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 12 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''UFS'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|PC-BSD}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|r/o support is included in Linux kernel 2.6.5 onwards;<br>r/w support on Mac;<br>[http://www.ufsexplorer.com/download_stdr.php UFS Explorer]<ref name=ufsexplorer>http://www.ufsexplorer.com/download_stdr.php</ref> can be used on Windows}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|changed to r/o support in Mac Lion}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 13 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''UFS+S'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|PC-BSD}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|check if your Linux distro provides ufsutils;<br>r/w support on Mac;<br>[http://www.ufsexplorer.com/download_stdr.php UFS Explorer]<ref name=ufsexplorer/> can be used on Windows}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|changed to r/o support in Mac Lion}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 14 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''UFS+J'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|PC-BSD}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|check if your Linux distro provides ufsutils;<br>r/w support on Mac;<br>[http://www.ufsexplorer.com/download_stdr.php UFS Explorer]<ref name=ufsexplorer/> can be used on Windows}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|changed to r/o support in Mac Lion}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 15 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''XFS'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|Linux}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|content=r/o through [http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=xfs xfs(5)]}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 16 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''ZFS'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|PC-BSD, OpenSolaris}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|[http://zfsonlinux.org/ Linux port];<br>Mac support is under [http://code.google.com/p/maczfs/ development]<ref>http://code.google.com/p/maczfs/</ref>}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|}}
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
'''Example 3.13a: Using dhclient to Obtain an IP Address'''
+
===Device Names===
  
'''dhclient em0'''
+
Linux and BSD use different naming conventions for devices. For example:
DHCPREQUEST on em0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
+
DHCPACK from 192.168.2.1
+
bound to 192.168.2.10 -- renewal in 43200 seconds.
+
  
If you can obtain an IP address, you should be able to select a mirror to install from and continue with the installation.
+
* in Linux, Ethernet interfaces begin with ''eth''; in BSD, interface names indicate the name of the driver. For example, an Ethernet interface may be listed as ''re0'', indicating that it uses the Realtek ''re'' driver. The advantage of this convention is that you can read the '''man 4''' page for the driver (e.g. type '''man 4 re''') to see which models and features are provided by that driver.
  
===Installation Fails===
+
* BSD disk names differ from Linux. IDE drives begin with ''ad'' and SCSI and USB drives begin with ''da''.
  
The PC-BSD installer creates a log which keeps a record of all the steps that completed as well as any errors. Should the installation fail, you can access this log to see what went wrong. To access a terminal, right-click an area on the desktop outside of the installation window and select xterm from the menu. You can read the log with this command:
+
===Feature Names===
  
'''more /tmp/pc-sysinstall.log'''
+
Some of the features used by BSD have similar counterparts to Linux, but the name of the feature is different. Table 1.4b provides some common examples:
  
If you can't figure out how to fix the error or believe that you have discovered an installation bug, send this log to the [http://lists.pcbsd.org/mailman/listinfo/support Support] mailing list. When an installation error occurs, the PC-BSD installer will ask if you would like to generate an error report. If you click Yes, a pop-up message will ask if you would like to save the error log to a USB stick. Type '''y''' and insert a FAT formatted USB thumb drive to copy the log.
+
'''Figure 1.4b: Names for BSD and Linux Features'''
  
===System Doesn't Boot===
+
{{Tbl-init|width=100%}}
 +
{{Tbl-title|width=25%|'''PC-BSD'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-title|width=25%|'''Linux'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-title|width=50%|'''Description'''}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 1 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|PF}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|iptables}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|default firewall}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 2 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|''/etc/rc.d/'' for operating system and ''/usr/local/etc/rc.d/'' for applications}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|''rc0.d/'', ''rc1.d/'', etc.}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|in PC-BSD the directories containing the startup scripts do not link to runlevels as there are no runlevels; system startup scripts are separated from third-party application scripts}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 3 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|''/etc/ttys'' and ''/etc/rc.conf''}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''telinit''' and ''init.d/''}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|terminals are configured in ''ttys'' and ''rc.conf'' indicates which services will start at boot time}}
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
If the installer doesn't make it to the installer boot screen, seen in Figure 3.13b, try unplugging as many devices as possible, such as webcams, scanners, printers, USB mice and keyboards. If this solves the problem, plug in one piece of hardware at a time, then reboot. This will help you pinpoint which device is causing the problem.
+
===Commands===
  
'''Figure 3.13b PC-BSD Welcome Screen'''
+
If you are comfortable with the command line, you may find that some of the commands that you are used to have different names on BSD. Table 1.4c lists some common commands and their equivalents.
  
[[Image:Welcome.jpeg]]
+
'''Table 1.4c: Common BSD and Linux Commands'''
  
If your computer freezes after the installation boot menu (while probing hardware) and unplugging extra devices did not fix the problem, it is possible that the installation media is corrupt. If the MD5 on the file you downloaded is correct, try reburning the file at a lower speed.
+
{{Tbl-init|width=100%}}
 +
{{Tbl-title|width=25%|'''PC-BSD'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-title|width=25%|'''Linux'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-title|width=50%|'''Result'''}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 1 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''dmesg'''}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''dmesg'''<br>'''lsdev''' (Is this used anywhere?)}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|discover what hardware was detected by the kernel}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 2 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''sysctl dev}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''cat /proc/devices}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|display configured devices}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 3 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''pciconf -l -cv}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''lspci -tv}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|show PCI devices}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 4 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''dmesg <nowiki>|</nowiki> grep usb}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''lsusb -tv}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|show USB devices}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 5 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''kldstat}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''lsmod}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|list all modules loaded in the kernel}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 6 -->
  
If the system freezes after the PC-BSD boot screen loads and you suspect that the video card is causing the system to freeze, review your system's BIOS settings. If there is a setting for video memory, set it to its highest value. Also check to see if the BIOS is set to prefer built-in graphics or a non-existent graphics card. On some systems this is determined by the order of the devices listed; in this case, make sure that the preferred device is listed first. If you cannot see your BIOS settings you may need to move a jumper or remove a battery to make it revert to the default of built-in graphics; check your manual or contact your manufacturer for details.
+
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''kldload <module>}}
 
+
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''modprobe <module>}}
If that change did not help, try rebooting and selecting option "7. Escape to loader prompt" from the boot menu. This will open the boot loader prompt where you can type the following commands:
+
{{Tbl-line|align=left|load a kernel module for the current session}}
 
+
|-
'''unload'''
+
<!-- row 7 -->
'''disable-module vesa'''
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''pbi_add -r <pbiname>}}
'''set module_path=/boot/kernel;/boot/modules;CONSOLE'''
+
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''rpm -i <package>.rpm}}
'''boot'''
+
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|install software from the command line}}
+
|-
That will disable the vesa splash screen and boot the system to an emergency console. From there you can try vesa mode, or drop to a shell and modify ''/etc/X11/xorg.conf'' to change your display settings.
+
<!-- row 8 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''sysctl hw.realmem}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''cat /proc/meminfo}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|hardware memory}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 9 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''sysctl hw.model}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''cat /proc/cpuinfo}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|CPU model}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 10 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''sysctl hw.machine_arch}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''uname -m}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|CPU Architecture}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 11 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''sysctl hw.ncpu}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''getconf _NPROCESSORS_ONLN}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|number of CPUs}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 12 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''uname -vm}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''lsb_release -a<br>cat /etc/*release<br>cat /etc/*version}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|align=left|get release version information}}
 +
|-
 +
<!-- row 13 -->
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''gpart show}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''fdisk -l<br>parted -l}}
 +
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|show device partition information}}
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
A not uncommon cause for problems is the LBA (Logical Block Addressing) setting in the BIOS. If your PC is not booting up before or after installation, check your BIOS and turn LBA off (don't leave it on automatic).
+
===Additional Resources ===
 
+
* [http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/explaining-bsd/comparing-bsd-and-linux.html Comparing BSD and Linux]<ref>http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/explaining-bsd/comparing-bsd-and-linux.html</ref>
If the SATA settings in your BIOS are set to "compatibility" mode, try changing this setting to "AHCI".
+
* [http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/linux-comparison/article.html An Open Source Alternative to Linux]<ref>http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/linux-comparison/article.html</ref>
 
+
* [http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-users/index.html Quickstart Guide for Linux® Users]<ref>http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-users/index.html</ref>
===Getting Help===
+
* [http://www.over-yonder.net/~fullermd/rants/bsd4linux/01 BSD vs Linux]<ref>http://www.over-yonder.net/~fullermd/rants/bsd4linux/01</ref>
 
+
{{testing5}}
If none of the above has fixed your problem, search the [http://forums.pcbsd.org/ PC-BSD forums] to see if a solution exists, try a Google search, or check the section on [[Finding Help]].
+
[[category:testing]]
<noinclude>[[category:handbook]]</noinclude>
+

Revision as of 13:27, 13 October 2012


PC-BSD is based on BSD Unix, meaning that it is not a Linux distribution. If you have used Linux before, you will find that some features that you are used to have different names on a BSD system and that some commands are different. This section covers some of these differences.

Contents

Filesystems

BSD and Linux use different filesystems during installation. Many Linux distros use EXT2, EXT3, EXT4, or ReiserFS, while PC-BSD uses UFS or ZFS. This means that if you wish to dual-boot with Linux or access data on an external drive that has been formatted with a Linux filesystem, you will want to do a bit of research first to see if the data can be made available on both operating systems.

Table 1.4a summarizes the various filesystems commonly used by desktop systems. Most of the desktop managers available from PC-BSD should automatically mount the following filesystems: FAT16, FAT32, EXT2, EXT3 (without journaling), EXT4 (read-only), NTFS5, NTFS6, and XFS. See Files and File Sharing for more information about available file manager utilities.

Table 1.4a: Filesystem Support Between Linux and PC-BSD

Filesystem Native to Type of non-native support Usage notes
Btrfs


Linux


none


Btrfs[1], when complete, is expected to offer a feature set comparable to ZFS[2]
EXT2


Linux


r/w through ext2fs(5)[3]


EXT3


Linux


r/w through ext2fs(5).


EXT3 journaling is not supported. This means that you won't be able to mount a filesystem requiring a journal replay unless you fsck it using an external utility such as e2fsprogs[4].
EXT4 Linux r/o through ext2fs(5)
r/o through ext4fuse[5]
Journaling is not supported. This means that you won't be able to mount a filesystem requiring a journal replay unless you fsck it using an external utility such as e2fsprogs[4]. EXT3 filesystems converted to EXT4 may be more likely to have better results. May not work. Neither having extended attributes 'enabled' nor inodes greater than 128-bytes are supported.
FAT16 Windows r/w through msdosfs(5)[6]
FAT32 Windows r/w through msdosfs(5)
HFS+ Mac OSX none older Mac versions might work with hfsexplorer[7]
JFS Linux none if you are interested in journaling, choose UFS+J during installation
NTFS5 Windows full r/o, some limitations on r/w, via mount_ntfs(8)[8];
full r/w through ntfs-3g(8)[9]
PC-BSD uses ntfs-3g
NTFS6 Windows r/w through ntfs-3g(8)
ReiserFS Linux r/o through reiserfs(5)[10]
UFS PC-BSD r/o support is included in Linux kernel 2.6.5 onwards;
r/w support on Mac;
UFS Explorer[11] can be used on Windows
changed to r/o support in Mac Lion
UFS+S PC-BSD check if your Linux distro provides ufsutils;
r/w support on Mac;
UFS Explorer[11] can be used on Windows
changed to r/o support in Mac Lion
UFS+J PC-BSD check if your Linux distro provides ufsutils;
r/w support on Mac;
UFS Explorer[11] can be used on Windows
changed to r/o support in Mac Lion
XFS Linux r/o through xfs(5)
ZFS PC-BSD, OpenSolaris Linux port;
Mac support is under development[12]

Device Names

Linux and BSD use different naming conventions for devices. For example:

  • in Linux, Ethernet interfaces begin with eth; in BSD, interface names indicate the name of the driver. For example, an Ethernet interface may be listed as re0, indicating that it uses the Realtek re driver. The advantage of this convention is that you can read the man 4 page for the driver (e.g. type man 4 re) to see which models and features are provided by that driver.
  • BSD disk names differ from Linux. IDE drives begin with ad and SCSI and USB drives begin with da.

Feature Names

Some of the features used by BSD have similar counterparts to Linux, but the name of the feature is different. Table 1.4b provides some common examples:

Figure 1.4b: Names for BSD and Linux Features

PC-BSD Linux Description
PF iptables default firewall
/etc/rc.d/ for operating system and /usr/local/etc/rc.d/ for applications rc0.d/, rc1.d/, etc. in PC-BSD the directories containing the startup scripts do not link to runlevels as there are no runlevels; system startup scripts are separated from third-party application scripts
/etc/ttys and /etc/rc.conf telinit and init.d/ terminals are configured in ttys and rc.conf indicates which services will start at boot time

Commands

If you are comfortable with the command line, you may find that some of the commands that you are used to have different names on BSD. Table 1.4c lists some common commands and their equivalents.

Table 1.4c: Common BSD and Linux Commands

PC-BSD Linux Result
dmesg dmesg
lsdev (Is this used anywhere?)
discover what hardware was detected by the kernel
sysctl dev cat /proc/devices display configured devices
pciconf -l -cv lspci -tv show PCI devices
dmesg | grep usb lsusb -tv show USB devices
kldstat lsmod list all modules loaded in the kernel
kldload <module> modprobe <module> load a kernel module for the current session
pbi_add -r <pbiname> rpm -i <package>.rpm install software from the command line
sysctl hw.realmem cat /proc/meminfo hardware memory
sysctl hw.model cat /proc/cpuinfo CPU model
sysctl hw.machine_arch uname -m CPU Architecture
sysctl hw.ncpu getconf _NPROCESSORS_ONLN number of CPUs
uname -vm lsb_release -a
cat /etc/*release
cat /etc/*version
get release version information
gpart show fdisk -l
parted -l
show device partition information

Additional Resources


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