Difference between revisions of "Package Manager/9.2/de"

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<noinclude>
 
<noinclude>
{{NavHeader/de|back=Upgrading PC-BSD®|forward=Create Your Own PBI Repository}}</noinclude>
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{{UseTOC{{putVers}}|Nav}}</noinclude>
  
'''pc-metapkgmanager''' is the back-end command line utility used by the PC-BSD® installer, System Manager, Update Manager, and Warden® to manage meta-packages. Meta-packages are like system components, and include supported and unsupported desktops, development utilities, hardware drivers, and miscellaneous applications such as MythTV or XBMC.
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PC-BSD® bietet eine grafische Paketverwaltung in den Einstellungen, das zur Verwaltung von installierte Desktops und Systemkomponenten verwendet werden kann. Es kann auch als Frontend für die FreeBSD-Paketsammlung verwendet werden. Wenn Sie dieses Dienstprogramm in der Befehlszeile starten möchten, nutzen Sie den Befehl '''pc-su pc-pkgmanager'''.
  
Beginning with version 9.1, PC-BSD® uses metapkgsets to determine which system components are available and which applications are installed with each system component. Currently, two metapkgsets are available: ''pcbsd'' which defines the available desktop components, and ''warden'' which defines the components available when creating a jail with Warden® or installing a PC-BSD® server. You can view the contents of these metapkgsets on {{citelink|url=http://trac.pcbsd.org/browser/pcbsd/current#build-files/metapkgsets|txt=trac}}.
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Figure 7.2a shows Package Manager with its categories expanded. This sample system uses NVIDIA for graphics and the default desktop manager of KDE was kept during the installation. This default view is known as Basic View.
  
The '''pc-metapkgmanager''' command can be used at the command line to install or delete meta-packages, update to the latest package set, or to change the default metapkgset. If you type the command without any options, it will display its usage:
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[[File:package1a.png|thumb|393px|'''Figure 7.2a: Viewing Installed Components''']]
  
{{txtbox|box='''pc-metapkgmanager'''
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=== Systemkomponenten installieren ===
usage: pc-metapkgmanager [options]
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Options:
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&nbsp;add pkg1,pkg2 <loc> -- Add the specified list of meta-packages
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&nbsp;                          <loc> should be a FTP / HTTP url where pkg_add
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&nbsp;                          can fetch packages, or an absolute path to
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&nbsp;                          location of pkg files on disk.
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&nbsp;checkup -- Check for updates to pkgs
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&nbsp;del pkg1,pkg2   -- Delete the specified list of meta-packages
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&nbsp;list            -- List the available meta-packages
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&nbsp;status <pkg>    -- List the status of the specified meta-packages
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&nbsp;update pkg,pkg2 <loc>  -- Update system packages. Can use 'all' or <pkg,pkg2>.
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&nbsp;                          <loc> should be a FTP / HTTP url where pkg_add
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&nbsp;                          can fetch packages, or an absolute path to
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&nbsp;                          location of pkg files on disk.
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&nbsp;--pkgset <pkgset> -- Change default pkgset we are using
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&nbsp;--chroot <dir> -- Operate on the directory specified using chroot}}
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=== Finding, Installing, and Uninstalling Meta-Packages ===
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Zum Installieren von Komponenten, können Sie die Kontrollkästchen aktivieren, zum Deinstallieren deaktivieren Sie die entsprechenden Kästchen. Dananch klicken Sie auf die Schaltfläche "Anwenden", um die entsprechenden Operationen durchzuführen.
  
To determine which meta-packages are available:
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=== FreeBSD-Pakete installieren ===
  
{{txtbox|box='''pc-metapkgmanager list {{pipe}} more'''
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To instead manage FreeBSD packages, click <span class=traverse>View{{rarr}}Advanced</span> to change to Advanced View. This view is shown in Figure 7.2b with the editors category expanded.
Meta Package: Awesome
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<nowiki>-</nowiki>------------------------------------
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Description: A highly configurable, next generation framework window manager
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Icon: /var/db/pc-metapkgmanager/pkgsets/pcbsd/Awesome/pkg-icon.png
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Parent: Unsupported-Desktops
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Desktop: YES
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Required Packages:
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awesome-3.4.13
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Meta Package: Compiz
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<nowiki>-</nowiki>------------------------------------
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Description: Compiz - OpenGL compositing manager
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Icon: /var/db/pc-metapkgmanager/pkgsets/pcbsd/Compiz/pkg-icon.png
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Parent: Misc
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Desktop: NO
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Required Packages:
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compiz-fusion-0.8.4_2
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Meta Package: Desktops
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<nowiki>-</nowiki>------------------------------------
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Description: Supported Desktop Environments for your PC-BSD system.
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Icon: /var/db/pc-metapkgmanager/pkgsets/pcbsd/Desktops/pkg-icon.png
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Desktop: NO
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Category Entry
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Meta Package: Development
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<nowiki>-</nowiki>------------------------------------
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Description: Development tools and utilities for your Desktop
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Icon: /var/db/pc-metapkgmanager/pkgsets/pcbsd/Development/pkg-icon.png
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Desktop: NO
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--More--(byte 989)}}
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To view which meta-packages are available in an alternate metapkgset, specify the metapkgset name. For example, to view the available ''warden'' meta-packages from your desktop, use this command:
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[[File:package2a.png|thumb|393px|'''Figure 7.2b: Managing FreeBSD Packages''']]
  
{{txtbox|box='''pc-metapkgmanager --pkgset warden list {{pipe}} more'''
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The search utility can be used to find packages to install. Alternately, if you know the software category, expand it and check the software you would like to install. As you browse, you can select multiple packages. If you click an application name, its Package Information screen will display, as seen in the example in Figure 7.2c.
Meta Package: Apache
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<nowiki>-</nowiki>------------------------------------
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Description: The Apache Web Server
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Icon: /var/db/pc-metapkgmanager/pkgsets/warden/Apache/pkg-icon.png
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Parent: Web-Servers
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Desktop: NO
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Required Packages:
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apache-2.2.22_6
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Meta Package: BigBlueButton
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<nowiki>-</nowiki>------------------------------------
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Description: BigBlueButton enables universities and colleges to deliver
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a high-quality learning experience to remote students.
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Icon: /var/db/pc-metapkgmanager/pkgsets/warden/BigBlueButton/pkg-icon.png
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Parent: Web-Apps
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Desktop: NO
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Required Packages:
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mysql-server-5.5.27
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bigbluebutton-0.71_3
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Meta Package: Database-Servers
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<nowiki>-</nowiki>------------------------------------
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Description: Database Server Software
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Icon: /var/db/pc-metapkgmanager/pkgsets/warden/Database-Servers/pkg-icon.png
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Desktop: NO
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Category Entry
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Meta Package: Development
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<nowiki>-</nowiki>------------------------------------
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Description: Development tools and utilities
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Icon: /var/db/pc-metapkgmanager/pkgsets/warden/Development/pkg-icon.png
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--More--(byte 989)}}
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To permanently change the default metapkgset between ''pcbsd'' and ''warden'', modify the ''PCBSD_METAPKGSET'' variable in ''/usr/local/etc/pcbsd.conf''.
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[[File:package3.png|thumb|393px|'''Figure 7.2c: Viewing a Package's Information''']]
  
To determine if a meta-package is installed, specify its "Meta Package" name as shown in the output of the '''pc-metapkgmanager list''' command. For example, to see if the Awesome desktop is installed:
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The Package Information is divided into three tabs:
  
{{txtbox|box='''pc-metapkgmanager status Awesome'''
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* '''Description:''' displays the name and version of the package, its download size, the URL to its homepage, and a brief description.
The meta-pkg Awesome is not installed}}
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To install the meta-package, use the '''add''' option and specify the meta-package name. Only the superuser can install meta-packages. If you do not specify the URL, the default mirror will be used. If you receive an error when downloading the package, you can change the default mirror in ''Control Panel'' ➜ ''[[System Manager]]'' ''Mirrors''.
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* '''Options:''' shows the options compiled into the package. Options will be listed as either ''on'' or ''off''.
  
The following example installs the Awesome meta-package. '''pc-metapkgmanager''' will provide messages regarding the status of the installation:
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* '''Dependencies:''' lists any additional packages that will be installed as dependencies of the selected package.
  
{{txtbox|box='''pc-metapkgmanager add Awesome'''
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Once you have made your selections, click the "Apply" button to install the selected software.
Pending Meta-Package changes: 1
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Package source: NET
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Preparing to add: Awesome...
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Checking for updates to old packages...
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Installing Meta-Package: Awesome
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Getting package list...
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Pending package changes: 6
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Downloading package: awesome-3.4.13
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//usr/local/tmp/awesome-3.4.13.txz            100% of  704 kB  637 kBps
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Downloading package: libev-4.11,1
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//usr/local/tmp/libev-4.11,1.txz              100% of  117 kB  361 kBps
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Downloading package: libxdg-basedir-1.1.1
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//usr/local/tmp/libxdg-basedir-1.1.1.txz      100% of  11 kB  130 kBps
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Downloading package: xcb-util-image-0.3.8
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//usr/local/tmp/xcb-util-image-0.3.8.txz      100% of  18 kB  141 kBps
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Downloading package: xcb-util-keysyms-0.3.8
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//usr/local/tmp/xcb-util-keysyms-0.3.8.txz    100% of 8040  B  72 kBps
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Downloading package: xcb-util-wm-0.3.8
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//usr/local/tmp/xcb-util-wm-0.3.8.txz        100% of  35 kB  148 kBps
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Installing package: awesome-3.4.13
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Skipping installed package: libev-4.11,1
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Skipping installed package: libxdg-basedir-1.1.1
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Skipping installed package: xcb-util-image-0.3.8
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Skipping installed package: xcb-util-keysyms-0.3.8
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Skipping installed package: xcb-util-wm-0.3.8
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The meta-pkg Awesome is installed
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Finished Meta-Package: Awesome
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Meta-Package changes finished!}}
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To delete an installed meta-package, specify its name. Only the superuser can uninstall meta-packages. As seen in the following example, '''pc-metapkgmanager''' automatically determines which dependent packages are still needed by other applications and which can be safely removed.
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=== Installierte Pakete aktualisieren ===
  
{{txtbox|box='''pc-metapkgmanager del Awesome'''
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As newer versions of installed packages become available, they are listed in the "Package Updates" tab of Package Manager. In the example shown in Figure 7.2d, three updates are available, representing package updates to the PC-BSD® utilities, the GUI versions of those utilities, and to the base packages installed with the operating system.
Pending Meta-Package changes: 1
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Removing Meta-Package: Awesome
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Getting package list...
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Pending package changes: 66
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Removing: awesome-3.4.13
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Skipping Meta-Required: giflib-4.2.0_2
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Removing: libev-4.11,1
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Removing: libxdg-basedir-1.1.1
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Removing: xcb-util-image-0.3.8
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Removing: xcb-util-keysyms-0.3.8
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Removing: xcb-util-wm-0.3.8
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Skipping Required: bitstream-vera-1.10_5
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Skipping Required: cairo-1.10.2_4,2
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<snip output of other required packages>
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The meta-pkg Awesome is not installed
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Meta-Package changes finished!}}
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=== Upgrading Meta-Packages ===
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[[File:Package4.png|thumb|393px|'''Figure 7.2d: Package Updates Available''']]
  
'''pc-metapkgmanager''' can also be used to determine if any meta-packages are out of date and to update meta-packages. To determine if any meta-packages have newer versions:
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Updates are added using the following target schedule:
  
{{txtbox|box='''pc-metapkgmanager checkup'''
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* if you are running RELEASE, any changes to the packages that come with the operating system as well as any packages installed in Basic View show up around the 1st and 15th of each month
All packages are up to date!}}
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In this example, all meta-packages are at their latest versions. If any were out of date, you would instead receive the message "The following package updates are available:" followed by the names of the out-of-date meta-packages.
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* if you are running STABLE, any changes to the packages that come with the operating system as well as any packages installed in Basic View show up around the 5th and 20th of each month
  
To update a meta-package, use the '''pc-metapkgmanager update''' command followed by the name of the specific meta-package or the word '''all''' to update all out-of-date meta-packages.
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* if you installed any FreeBSD packages from Advanced View, these show up whenever a new version becomes available
  
'''pc-metapkgmanager''' records any error messages to ''/tmp/.pc-metamanager.log''. This log file automatically rotates whenever it reaches 5MB in size.
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Note that these are target dates which may slip by a few days if the build server experiences problems building packages from ports.
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To update to the newest versions of packages, click the "Update packages" button.
  
 
<noinclude>
 
<noinclude>
 
{{refheading}}
 
{{refheading}}
[[category:Meta Package Manager]]
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[[category:Meta-Paketverwaltung]]
[[category:Maintaining and Extending PC-BSD®]]
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[[category:PC-BSD® warten und erweitern]]
[[category:handbook]]
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[[category:Handbuch]]
 
<languages/>
 
<languages/>
 
</noinclude>
 
</noinclude>

Latest revision as of 05:28, 13 April 2014


Contents


PC-BSD® bietet eine grafische Paketverwaltung in den Einstellungen, das zur Verwaltung von installierte Desktops und Systemkomponenten verwendet werden kann. Es kann auch als Frontend für die FreeBSD-Paketsammlung verwendet werden. Wenn Sie dieses Dienstprogramm in der Befehlszeile starten möchten, nutzen Sie den Befehl pc-su pc-pkgmanager.

Figure 7.2a shows Package Manager with its categories expanded. This sample system uses NVIDIA for graphics and the default desktop manager of KDE was kept during the installation. This default view is known as Basic View.

Figure 7.2a: Viewing Installed Components

[edit] Systemkomponenten installieren

Zum Installieren von Komponenten, können Sie die Kontrollkästchen aktivieren, zum Deinstallieren deaktivieren Sie die entsprechenden Kästchen. Dananch klicken Sie auf die Schaltfläche "Anwenden", um die entsprechenden Operationen durchzuführen.

[edit] FreeBSD-Pakete installieren

To instead manage FreeBSD packages, click View → Advanced to change to Advanced View. This view is shown in Figure 7.2b with the editors category expanded.

Figure 7.2b: Managing FreeBSD Packages

The search utility can be used to find packages to install. Alternately, if you know the software category, expand it and check the software you would like to install. As you browse, you can select multiple packages. If you click an application name, its Package Information screen will display, as seen in the example in Figure 7.2c.

Figure 7.2c: Viewing a Package's Information

The Package Information is divided into three tabs:

  • Description: displays the name and version of the package, its download size, the URL to its homepage, and a brief description.
  • Options: shows the options compiled into the package. Options will be listed as either on or off.
  • Dependencies: lists any additional packages that will be installed as dependencies of the selected package.

Once you have made your selections, click the "Apply" button to install the selected software.

[edit] Installierte Pakete aktualisieren

As newer versions of installed packages become available, they are listed in the "Package Updates" tab of Package Manager. In the example shown in Figure 7.2d, three updates are available, representing package updates to the PC-BSD® utilities, the GUI versions of those utilities, and to the base packages installed with the operating system.

Figure 7.2d: Package Updates Available

Updates are added using the following target schedule:

  • if you are running RELEASE, any changes to the packages that come with the operating system as well as any packages installed in Basic View show up around the 1st and 15th of each month
  • if you are running STABLE, any changes to the packages that come with the operating system as well as any packages installed in Basic View show up around the 5th and 20th of each month
  • if you installed any FreeBSD packages from Advanced View, these show up whenever a new version becomes available

Note that these are target dates which may slip by a few days if the build server experiences problems building packages from ports.

To update to the newest versions of packages, click the "Update packages" button.


Verweise


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