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PC-BSD® is based on {{citelink|wp|url=Berkeley_Software_Distribution|txt=BSD Unix}}, meaning that it is not a Linux distribution. If you have used Linux before, you will find that some features that you are used to have different names on a BSD system and that some commands are different. This section covers some of these differences.
 
PC-BSD® is based on {{citelink|wp|url=Berkeley_Software_Distribution|txt=BSD Unix}}, meaning that it is not a Linux distribution. If you have used Linux before, you will find that some features that you are used to have different names on a BSD system and that some commands are different. This section covers some of these differences.

Revision as of 13:39, 5 January 2014


Contents


PC-BSD® is based on BSD Unix[1], meaning that it is not a Linux distribution. If you have used Linux before, you will find that some features that you are used to have different names on a BSD system and that some commands are different. This section covers some of these differences.

Dateisysteme

Sowohl BSD als auch Linux verwenden unterschiedliche Dateisysteme während der Installation. Viele Linux-Distributionen verwenden EXT2, EXT3, EXT4 oder ReiserFS, während PC-BSD® UFS oder ZFS nutzt. Sollten Sie einen Dual-Boot mit Linux verwenden wollen oder auf Daten auf einer externen Festplatte zugreifen, die mit einem anderen Dateisystem formatiert wurde wollen, werden Sie ein wenig Forschung betreiben müssen, um zu sehen, ob die Daten von beiden Betriebssystemen zugegriffen werden kann.

Die Tabelle 1.4a fasst die verschiedenen Dateisysteme zusammen, die häufig von Desktop-Systemen eingesetzt werden. Die meisten bei PC-BSD® verfügbaren Desktop-Manager sollten automatisch die folgenden Dateisysteme unterstützen: FAT16, FAT32, EXT2, EXT3 (ohne Journaling), EXT4 (read-only), NTFS5, NTFS6 und XFS. Siehe auch den Abschnitt über [[Files und File Sharing/9.2/de|Translations:Files und File Sharing/9.2/Page display title/de]] für weitere Informationen über die verfügbaren Datei-Manager-Werkzeuge.

Table 1.4a: Filesystem Support on PC-BSD® [tables 1]
Filesystem Native to Type of non-native support Usage notes
Btrfs Linux none
exFAT Windows r/w support loaded by default
EXT2 Linux r/w support loaded by default
EXT3 Linux r/w support loaded by default since EXT3 journaling is not supported, you will not be able to mount a filesystem requiring a journal replay unless you fsck it using an external utility such as e2fsprogs[2].
EXT4 Linux r/o support loaded by default EXT3 journaling, extended attributes, and inodes greater than 128-bytes are not supported; EXT3 filesystems converted to EXT4 may have better performance
FAT16 Windows r/w support loaded by default
FAT32 Windows r/w support loaded by default
HFS+ Mac OS X none older Mac versions might work with hfsexplorer[3].
JFS Linux none
NTFS5 Windows full r/w support loaded by default
NTFS6 Windows r/w support loaded by default
ReiserFS Linux r/o support is loaded by default
UFS2 PC-BSD® check if your Linux distro provides ufsutils;
r/w support on Mac;
UFS Explorer[4] can be used on Windows
changed to r/o support in Mac Lion
XFS Linux r/o support is loaded by default
ZFSv5000 PC-BSD®, FreeBSD

Gerätebezeichnungen

Linux und BSD verwenden unterschiedliche Namenskonventionen für Geräte. Zum Beispiel:

  • Bei Linux beginnen Ethernet-Schnittstellen mit eth, bei BSD, geben Interface-Namen den Namen des Gerätestreibers. Beispielsweise wird eine Ethernet-Schnittstelle re0 gelistet, welche eine Realtek re-Treiber benutzt. Der Vorteil dieser Konvention ist, dass man die man 4-Hilfeseite für den Treiber (z.B. Eingabe von man 4 re) lesen kann, welche Modelle und Funktionen von dieses Treibers enthält.
  • BSD disk names differ from Linux. IDE drives begin with ad and SCSI and USB drives begin with da.

Funktionsbezeichnungen

Some of the features used by BSD have similar counterparts to Linux, but the name of the feature is different. Table 1.4b provides some common examples:

Table 1.4b: Names for BSD and Linux Features [tables 2]
PC-BSD® Linux Description
PF iptables default firewall
/etc/rc.d/ for operating system and /usr/local/etc/rc.d/ for applications rc0.d/, rc1.d/, etc. in PC-BSD® the directories containing the startup scripts do not link to runlevels as there are no runlevels; system startup scripts are separated from third-party application scripts
/etc/ttys and /etc/rc.conf telinit and init.d/ terminals are configured in ttys and rc.conf indicates which services will start at boot time

Befehle

If you are comfortable with the command line, you may find that some of the commands that you are used to have different names on BSD. Table 1.4c lists some common commands and what they are used for.

Table 1.4c: Common BSD and Linux Commands [tables 3]
Command Used to:
dmesg discover what hardware was detected by the kernel
sysctl dev display configured devices
pciconf -l -cv show PCI devices
dmesg | grep usb show USB devices
kldstat list all modules loaded in the kernel
kldload <module> load a kernel module for the current session
pbi_add -r <pbiname> install software from the command line
sysctl hw.realmem display hardware memory
sysctl hw.model display CPU model
sysctl hw.machine_arch display CPU Architecture
sysctl hw.ncpu display number of CPUs
uname -vm get release version information
gpart show show device partition information
fuser list IDs of all processes that have one or more files open


Zusätzliche Quellen

Die folgenden Artikel und Videos liefern zusätzliche Informationen über einige der Unterschiede zwischen BSD und Linux:


Verweise


  1. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berkeley_Software_Distribution
  2. http://e2fsprogs.sourceforge.net/
  3. http://www.catacombae.org/hfsx.html
  4. http://www.ufsexplorer.com/download_stdr.php
  5. http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/explaining-bsd/comparing-bsd-and-linux.html
  6. http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/linux-comparison/article.html
  7. http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/linux-users/index.html
  8. http://www.over-yonder.net/~fullermd/rants/bsd4linux/01
  9. http://www.freebsd.org/advocacy/whyusefreebsd.html
  10. http://www.unixmen.com/bsd-for-human-beings-interview/
  11. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xk6ouxX51NI
  12. http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/article.html
  13. http://bhami.com/rosetta.html
  14. http://www.leidinger.net/blog/2010/09/28/the-freebsd-linuxulator-explained-for-users/

List of Tables


  1. Table 1.4a: Filesystem Support on PC-BSD®
  2. Table 1.4b: Names for BSD and Linux Features
  3. Table 1.4c: Common BSD and Linux Commands
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