Difference between revisions of "PC-BSD® for Linux Users/9.2"

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<noinclude>{{NavHeader|back=PC-BSD® Releases|forward=Pre-Installation Tasks|custompagename=PC-BSD{{r}} for Linux Users|custompagecategory={{PAGENAME}}}}</noinclude>
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<noinclude><translate>
  
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<!--T:1-->
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{{UseTOC{{putVers}}|Nav|title=PC-BSD{{r}} for Linux Users}}</noinclude>
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<!--T:2-->
 
PC-BSD® is based on {{citelink|wp|url=Berkeley_Software_Distribution|txt=BSD Unix}}, meaning that it is not a Linux distribution. If you have used Linux before, you will find that some features that you are used to have different names on a BSD system and that some commands are different. This section covers some of these differences.
 
PC-BSD® is based on {{citelink|wp|url=Berkeley_Software_Distribution|txt=BSD Unix}}, meaning that it is not a Linux distribution. If you have used Linux before, you will find that some features that you are used to have different names on a BSD system and that some commands are different. This section covers some of these differences.
  
== Filesystems ==
+
== Filesystems == <!--T:3-->
  
 +
<!--T:4-->
 
BSD and Linux use different filesystems during installation. Many Linux distros use EXT2, EXT3, EXT4, or ReiserFS, while PC-BSD® uses UFS or ZFS. This means that if you wish to dual-boot with Linux or access data on an external drive that has been formatted with another filesystem, you will want to do a bit of research first to see if the data will be accessible to both operating systems.
 
BSD and Linux use different filesystems during installation. Many Linux distros use EXT2, EXT3, EXT4, or ReiserFS, while PC-BSD® uses UFS or ZFS. This means that if you wish to dual-boot with Linux or access data on an external drive that has been formatted with another filesystem, you will want to do a bit of research first to see if the data will be accessible to both operating systems.
  
Table 1.4a summarizes the various filesystems commonly used by desktop systems. Most of the desktop managers available from PC-BSD® should automatically mount the following filesystems: FAT16, FAT32, EXT2, EXT3 (without journaling), EXT4 (read-only), NTFS5, NTFS6, and XFS. See the section on [[Files and File Sharing]] for more information about available file manager utilities.  
+
<!--T:5-->
 
+
Table 1.4a summarizes the various filesystems commonly used by desktop systems. Most of the desktop managers available from PC-BSD® should automatically mount the following filesystems: FAT16, FAT32, EXT2, EXT3 (without journaling), EXT4 (read-only), NTFS5, NTFS6, and XFS. See the section on {{local|link=Files and File Sharing}} for more information about available file manager utilities.  
'''Table 1.4a: Filesystem Support on PC-BSD®'''
+
  
{{Tbl-init|width=100%}}
+
<!--T:6-->
{{Tbl-title|width=5%|'''Filesystem'''}}
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{{Tbl-init|class=spiffy_table sortable|caption=1.4a: Filesystem Support on PC-BSD®}}
{{Tbl-title|width=5%|'''Native to'''}}
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!'''Filesystem'''!!'''Native to'''!!width=35%|'''Type of non-native support'''!!class=unsortable|'''Usage notes'''
{{Tbl-title|width=35%|'''Type of non-native support'''}}
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{{Tbl-title|width=60%|'''Usage notes'''}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 1 -->
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|'''Btrfs'''||Linux||none||
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''Btrfs'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|Linux}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|none}}
+
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 2 -->
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|'''exFAT'''||Windows||r/w support loaded by default||
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''exFAT'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|Windows}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|content=r/w support loaded by default }}
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{{Tbl-line|}}
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|-
 
|-
<!-- row 3 -->
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|'''EXT2'''||Linux||r/w support loaded by default||
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''EXT2'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|Linux}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|content=r/w support loaded by default }}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 4 -->
+
|'''EXT3'''||Linux||r/w support loaded by default||since EXT3 journaling is not supported, you will not be able to mount a filesystem requiring a journal replay unless you '''fsck''' it using an external utility such as {{citelink|url=http://e2fsprogs.sourceforge.net/|txt=e2fsprogs}}.
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''EXT3'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|Linux}}
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{{Tbl-line|balign=left|r/w support loaded by default}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|since EXT3 journaling is not supported, you will not be able to mount a filesystem requiring a journal replay unless you '''fsck''' it using an external utility such as {{citelink|url=http://e2fsprogs.sourceforge.net/|txt=e2fsprogs}}.}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 5 -->
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|'''EXT4'''||Linux||r/o support loaded by default||EXT3 journaling, extended attributes, and inodes greater than 128-bytes are not supported; EXT3 filesystems converted to EXT4 may have better performance
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''EXT4'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|Linux}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|r/o support loaded by default}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|EXT3 journaling, extended attributes, and inodes greater than 128-bytes are not supported; EXT3 filesystems converted to EXT4 may have better performance}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 6 -->
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|'''FAT16'''||Windows||r/w support loaded by default||
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''FAT16'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|Windows}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|content=r/w support loaded by default}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|}}
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|-
 
|-
<!-- row 7 -->
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|'''FAT32'''||Windows||r/w support loaded by default||
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''FAT32'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|Windows}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|r/w support loaded by default}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|}}
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|-
 
|-
<!-- row 8 -->
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|'''HFS+'''||Mac OS X||none||older Mac versions might work with {{citelink|url=http://www.catacombae.org/hfsx.html|txt=hfsexplorer}}.
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''HFS+'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|Mac OSX}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|none}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|older Mac versions might work with {{citelink|url=http://www.catacombae.org/hfsx.html|txt=hfsexplorer}}.}}
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|-
 
|-
<!-- row 9 -->
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|'''JFS'''||Linux||none||
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''JFS'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|Linux}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|none}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|}}
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|-
 
|-
<!-- row 10 -->
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|'''NTFS5'''||Windows||full r/w support loaded by default||
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''NTFS5'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|Windows}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|content=full r/w support loaded by default}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 11 -->
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|'''NTFS6'''||Windows||r/w support loaded by default||
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''NTFS6'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|Windows}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|r/w support loaded by default}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|}}
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|-
 
|-
<!-- row 12 -->
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|'''ReiserFS'''||Linux||r/o support is loaded by default||
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''ReiserFS'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|Linux}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|content=r/o support is loaded by default}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 13 -->
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|'''UFS2'''||{{pcbsd}}||check if your Linux distro provides ufsutils;<br>r/w support on Mac;<br>{{citelink|url=http://www.ufsexplorer.com/download_stdr.php|txt=UFS Explorer}} can be used on Windows||changed to r/o support in Mac Lion
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''UFS'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|PC-BSD®}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|r/o support is included in Linux kernel 2.6.5 onwards;<br>r/w support on Mac;<br>{{citelink|url=http://www.ufsexplorer.com/download_stdr.php|txt=UFS Explorer}} can be used on Windows}}
+
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|changed to r/o support in Mac Lion}}
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|-
 
|-
<!-- row 14 -->
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|'''XFS'''||Linux||r/o support is loaded by default||
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''UFS+S'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|PC-BSD®}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|check if your Linux distro provides ufsutils;<br>r/w support on Mac;<br>{{citelink|url=http://www.ufsexplorer.com/download_stdr.php|txt=UFS Explorer}} can be used on Windows}}
+
{{Tbl-line|align=left|changed to r/o support in Mac Lion}}
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|-
 
|-
<!-- row 15 -->
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|'''ZFSv5000'''||{{pcbsd}}, FreeBSD|| ||
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''UFS+J'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|PC-BSD®}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|check if your Linux distro provides ufsutils;<br>r/w support on Mac;<br>{{citelink|url=http://www.ufsexplorer.com/download_stdr.php|txt=UFS Explorer}} can be used on Windows}}
+
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|changed to r/o support in Mac Lion}}
+
|-
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<!-- row 16 -->
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''XFS'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|Linux}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|content=r/o support is loaded by default}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|}}
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|-
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<!-- row 17 -->
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''ZFS'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|PC-BSD®, OpenSolaris}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|{{citelink|url=http://zfsonlinux.org/|txt=Linux port}};<br>Mac support is under {{citelink|url=http://code.google.com/p/maczfs/|txt=development}}.}}
+
 
+
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
  
== Device Names ==
+
== Device Names == <!--T:7-->
  
 +
<!--T:8-->
 
Linux and BSD use different naming conventions for devices. For example:
 
Linux and BSD use different naming conventions for devices. For example:
  
 +
<!--T:9-->
 
* in Linux, Ethernet interfaces begin with ''eth''; in BSD, interface names indicate the name of the driver. For example, an Ethernet interface may be listed as ''re0'', indicating that it uses the Realtek ''re'' driver. The advantage of this convention is that you can read the '''man 4''' page for the driver (e.g. type '''man 4 re''') to see which models and features are provided by that driver.
 
* in Linux, Ethernet interfaces begin with ''eth''; in BSD, interface names indicate the name of the driver. For example, an Ethernet interface may be listed as ''re0'', indicating that it uses the Realtek ''re'' driver. The advantage of this convention is that you can read the '''man 4''' page for the driver (e.g. type '''man 4 re''') to see which models and features are provided by that driver.
  
 +
<!--T:10-->
 
* BSD disk names differ from Linux. IDE drives begin with ''ad'' and SCSI and USB drives begin with ''da''.
 
* BSD disk names differ from Linux. IDE drives begin with ''ad'' and SCSI and USB drives begin with ''da''.
  
== Feature Names ==
+
== Feature Names == <!--T:11-->
  
 +
<!--T:12-->
 
Some of the features used by BSD have similar counterparts to Linux, but the name of the feature is different. Table 1.4b provides some common examples:
 
Some of the features used by BSD have similar counterparts to Linux, but the name of the feature is different. Table 1.4b provides some common examples:
  
'''Figure 1.4b: Names for BSD and Linux Features'''
+
<!--T:13-->
 
+
{{Tbl-init|caption=1.4b: Names for BSD and Linux Features}}
{{Tbl-init|width=100%}}
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!'''PC-BSD®'''!!'''Linux'''!!width=50%|'''Description'''
{{Tbl-title|width=25%|'''PC-BSD®'''}}
+
{{Tbl-title|width=25%|'''Linux'''}}
+
{{Tbl-title|width=50%|'''Description'''}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 1 -->
+
|PF||iptables||default firewall
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|PF}}
+
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|iptables}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|default firewall}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 2 -->
+
|''/etc/rc.d/'' for operating system and ''/usr/local/etc/rc.d/'' for applications||''rc0.d/'', ''rc1.d/'', etc.||in PC-BSD® the directories containing the startup scripts do not link to runlevels as there are no runlevels; system startup scripts are separated from third-party application scripts
{{Tbl-line|align=left|''/etc/rc.d/'' for operating system and ''/usr/local/etc/rc.d/'' for applications}}
+
{{Tbl-line|align=left|''rc0.d/'', ''rc1.d/'', etc.}}
+
{{Tbl-line|align=left|in PC-BSD® the directories containing the startup scripts do not link to runlevels as there are no runlevels; system startup scripts are separated from third-party application scripts}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 3 -->
+
|''/etc/ttys'' and ''/etc/rc.conf''||'''telinit''' and ''init.d/''||terminals are configured in ''ttys'' and ''rc.conf'' indicates which services will start at boot time
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|''/etc/ttys'' and ''/etc/rc.conf''}}
+
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''telinit''' and ''init.d/''}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|terminals are configured in ''ttys'' and ''rc.conf'' indicates which services will start at boot time}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
  
== Commands ==
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== Commands == <!--T:14-->
  
 +
<!--T:15-->
 
If you are comfortable with the command line, you may find that some of the commands that you are used to have different names on BSD. Table 1.4c lists some common commands and what they are used for.
 
If you are comfortable with the command line, you may find that some of the commands that you are used to have different names on BSD. Table 1.4c lists some common commands and what they are used for.
  
'''Table 1.4c: Common BSD and Linux Commands'''
+
<!--T:16-->
 
+
{{Tbl-init|class=spiffy_table sortable|caption=1.4c: Common BSD and Linux Commands}}
{{Tbl-init|width=100%}}
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!width=25%|'''Command'''!!class="unsortable"|'''Used to:'''
{{Tbl-title|width=25%|'''Command'''}}
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{{Tbl-title|width=50%|'''Used to:'''}}
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|-
 
|-
<!-- row 1 -->
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|'''dmesg'''||discover what hardware was detected by the kernel
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''dmesg'''}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|discover what hardware was detected by the kernel}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 2 -->
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|'''sysctl dev||display configured devices
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''sysctl dev}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|display configured devices}}
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|-
 
|-
<!-- row 3 -->
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|'''pciconf -l -cv||show PCI devices
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''pciconf -l -cv}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|show PCI devices}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 4 -->
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|'''dmesg <nowiki>|</nowiki> grep usb||show USB devices
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''dmesg <nowiki>|</nowiki> grep usb}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|show USB devices}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 5 -->
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|'''kldstat||list all modules loaded in the kernel
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''kldstat}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|list all modules loaded in the kernel}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 6 -->
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|'''kldload <module>||load a kernel module for the current session
 
+
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''kldload <module>}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|load a kernel module for the current session}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 7 -->
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|'''pbi_add -r <pbiname>||install software from the command line
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''pbi_add -r <pbiname>}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|install software from the command line}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 8 -->
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|'''sysctl hw.realmem||display hardware memory
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''sysctl hw.realmem}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|display hardware memory}}
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|-
 
|-
<!-- row 9 -->
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|'''sysctl hw.model||display CPU model
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''sysctl hw.model}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|display CPU model}}
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|-
 
|-
<!-- row 10 -->
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|'''sysctl hw.machine_arch||display CPU Architecture
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''sysctl hw.machine_arch}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|display CPU Architecture}}
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|-
 
|-
<!-- row 11 -->
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|'''sysctl hw.ncpu||display number of CPUs
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''sysctl hw.ncpu}}
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{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|display number of CPUs}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 12 -->
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|'''uname -vm||get release version information
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''uname -vm}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|get release version information}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 13 -->
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|'''gpart show||show device partition information
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|'''gpart show}}
+
{{Tbl-line|bg=ff|align=left|show device partition information}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
<!-- row 14 -->
+
|'''fuser||list IDs of all processes that have one or more files open
{{Tbl-line|align=left|'''fuser}}
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{{Tbl-line|align=left|list IDs of all processes that have one or more files open}}
+
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
  
== file formats, size and updates == <!-- envisioned to be a limited breakdown of 'ports/pkgs/pbi' vs 'linux equivalent' -->
+
<!-- Not included in 'published' version but deemed valuable to keep (envisioned to be a limited breakdown of 'ports/pkgs/pbi' vs 'linux equivalent')
A common complaint is that the size of PC-BSD® PBI files are much larger than the actual program. What complaints of this sort often do not recognize is that very few installable applications are complete by themselves. If you take a look at what happens while the program is being compiled, or when you install a package, you will notice that there are additional applications being pulled in or downloaded and installed. These are all dependencies: things that the program will require in order to fully function. An application of any complexity, especially if it is desktop-oriented, is likely to depend upon many programs. These programs may relate to audio or video playback, window management, or libraries for encoding, compression, encryption.
+
== File formats, size and updates == <!--T:17-->
 +
A common complaint is that the size of PC-BSD® PBI files are much larger than the actual program. What complaints of this sort often do not recognize is that very few installable applications are complete by themselves. If you take a look at what happens while the program is being compiled, or when you install a package, you will notice that there are additional applications being pulled in or downloaded and installed. These are all dependencies: things that the program will require in order to fully function. An application of any complexity, especially if it is desktop-oriented, is likely to depend upon many programs. These programs may relate to audio or video playback, window management, or libraries for encoding, compression, encryption. -->
  
 +
<!--T:18-->
 +
<!--
 
A PBI file consists of the primary application, determined by its name, along with all of its dependencies. When you add a program with AppCafe{{r}}, you download the application and dependency bundle that we call a PBI. The first set of dependencies may be reused by other applications that you install later; however, every PBI file contains all the necessary dependencies, even if those that would be redundant are not installed.
 
A PBI file consists of the primary application, determined by its name, along with all of its dependencies. When you add a program with AppCafe{{r}}, you download the application and dependency bundle that we call a PBI. The first set of dependencies may be reused by other applications that you install later; however, every PBI file contains all the necessary dependencies, even if those that would be redundant are not installed.
 +
-->
  
== Additional Resources ==
+
== Additional Resources == <!--T:19-->
  
 +
<!--T:20-->
 
The following articles and videos provide additional information about some of the differences between BSD and Linux:
 
The following articles and videos provide additional information about some of the differences between BSD and Linux:
  
 +
<!--T:21-->
 
* {{citelink|url=http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/explaining-bsd/comparing-bsd-and-linux.html|txt=Comparing BSD and Linux}}
 
* {{citelink|url=http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/explaining-bsd/comparing-bsd-and-linux.html|txt=Comparing BSD and Linux}}
  
 +
<!--T:22-->
 
* {{citelink|url=http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/linux-comparison/article.html|txt=FreeBSD: An Open Source Alternative to Linux}}
 
* {{citelink|url=http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/linux-comparison/article.html|txt=FreeBSD: An Open Source Alternative to Linux}}
  
 +
<!--T:23-->
 
* {{citelink|url=http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/linux-users/index.html|txt=FreeBSD Quickstart Guide for Linux® Users}}
 
* {{citelink|url=http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/linux-users/index.html|txt=FreeBSD Quickstart Guide for Linux® Users}}
  
 +
<!--T:24-->
 
* {{citelink|url=http://www.over-yonder.net/~fullermd/rants/bsd4linux/01|txt=BSD vs Linux}}
 
* {{citelink|url=http://www.over-yonder.net/~fullermd/rants/bsd4linux/01|txt=BSD vs Linux}}
  
 +
<!--T:25-->
 
* {{citelink|url=http://www.freebsd.org/advocacy/whyusefreebsd.html|txt=Why Choose FreeBSD?}}
 
* {{citelink|url=http://www.freebsd.org/advocacy/whyusefreebsd.html|txt=Why Choose FreeBSD?}}
  
 +
<!--T:26-->
 
* {{citelink|url=http://www.unixmen.com/bsd-for-human-beings-interview/|txt=Interview: BSD for Human Beings}}
 
* {{citelink|url=http://www.unixmen.com/bsd-for-human-beings-interview/|txt=Interview: BSD for Human Beings}}
  
 +
<!--T:27-->
 
* {{citelink|url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xk6ouxX51NI|txt=Video: BSD 4 Linux Users}}
 
* {{citelink|url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xk6ouxX51NI|txt=Video: BSD 4 Linux Users}}
  
 +
<!--T:28-->
 
* {{citelink|url=http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/article.html|txt=Why you should use a BSD style license for your Open Source Project}}
 
* {{citelink|url=http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/article.html|txt=Why you should use a BSD style license for your Open Source Project}}
  
 +
<!--T:29-->
 
* {{citelink|url=http://bhami.com/rosetta.html|txt=A Sysadmin's Unixersal Translator (ROSETTA STONE)}}
 
* {{citelink|url=http://bhami.com/rosetta.html|txt=A Sysadmin's Unixersal Translator (ROSETTA STONE)}}
  
<noinclude>{{refheading}}</noinclude>
+
<!--T:30-->
 +
* {{citelink|url=http://www.leidinger.net/blog/2010/09/28/the-freebsd-linuxulator-explained-for-users/|txt=The FreeBSD linuxulator explained for users}}
 +
 
 +
<!--T:31-->
 
<noinclude>
 
<noinclude>
[[category:handbook]]
+
{{refheading}}
[[category:introduction]]
+
{{GroupListHeading|group=tables}}
 
[[category:PC-BSD® for Linux Users]]
 
[[category:PC-BSD® for Linux Users]]
 +
[[category:introduction]]
 +
[[category:handbook]]
 +
</translate>
 +
<languages />
 
</noinclude>
 
</noinclude>

Latest revision as of 14:59, 5 August 2014


Contents


PC-BSD® is based on BSD Unix[1], meaning that it is not a Linux distribution. If you have used Linux before, you will find that some features that you are used to have different names on a BSD system and that some commands are different. This section covers some of these differences.

[edit] Filesystems

BSD and Linux use different filesystems during installation. Many Linux distros use EXT2, EXT3, EXT4, or ReiserFS, while PC-BSD® uses UFS or ZFS. This means that if you wish to dual-boot with Linux or access data on an external drive that has been formatted with another filesystem, you will want to do a bit of research first to see if the data will be accessible to both operating systems.

Table 1.4a summarizes the various filesystems commonly used by desktop systems. Most of the desktop managers available from PC-BSD® should automatically mount the following filesystems: FAT16, FAT32, EXT2, EXT3 (without journaling), EXT4 (read-only), NTFS5, NTFS6, and XFS. See the section on Files and File Sharing for more information about available file manager utilities.

Table 1.4a: Filesystem Support on PC-BSD® [tables 1]
Filesystem Native to Type of non-native support Usage notes
Btrfs Linux none
exFAT Windows r/w support loaded by default
EXT2 Linux r/w support loaded by default
EXT3 Linux r/w support loaded by default since EXT3 journaling is not supported, you will not be able to mount a filesystem requiring a journal replay unless you fsck it using an external utility such as e2fsprogs[2].
EXT4 Linux r/o support loaded by default EXT3 journaling, extended attributes, and inodes greater than 128-bytes are not supported; EXT3 filesystems converted to EXT4 may have better performance
FAT16 Windows r/w support loaded by default
FAT32 Windows r/w support loaded by default
HFS+ Mac OS X none older Mac versions might work with hfsexplorer[3].
JFS Linux none
NTFS5 Windows full r/w support loaded by default
NTFS6 Windows r/w support loaded by default
ReiserFS Linux r/o support is loaded by default
UFS2 PC‑BSD® check if your Linux distro provides ufsutils;
r/w support on Mac;
UFS Explorer[4] can be used on Windows
changed to r/o support in Mac Lion
XFS Linux r/o support is loaded by default
ZFSv5000 PC‑BSD®, FreeBSD

[edit] Device Names

Linux and BSD use different naming conventions for devices. For example:

  • in Linux, Ethernet interfaces begin with eth; in BSD, interface names indicate the name of the driver. For example, an Ethernet interface may be listed as re0, indicating that it uses the Realtek re driver. The advantage of this convention is that you can read the man 4 page for the driver (e.g. type man 4 re) to see which models and features are provided by that driver.
  • BSD disk names differ from Linux. IDE drives begin with ad and SCSI and USB drives begin with da.

[edit] Feature Names

Some of the features used by BSD have similar counterparts to Linux, but the name of the feature is different. Table 1.4b provides some common examples:

Table 1.4b: Names for BSD and Linux Features [tables 2]
PC-BSD® Linux Description
PF iptables default firewall
/etc/rc.d/ for operating system and /usr/local/etc/rc.d/ for applications rc0.d/, rc1.d/, etc. in PC-BSD® the directories containing the startup scripts do not link to runlevels as there are no runlevels; system startup scripts are separated from third-party application scripts
/etc/ttys and /etc/rc.conf telinit and init.d/ terminals are configured in ttys and rc.conf indicates which services will start at boot time

[edit] Commands

If you are comfortable with the command line, you may find that some of the commands that you are used to have different names on BSD. Table 1.4c lists some common commands and what they are used for.

Table 1.4c: Common BSD and Linux Commands [tables 3]
Command Used to:
dmesg discover what hardware was detected by the kernel
sysctl dev display configured devices
pciconf -l -cv show PCI devices
dmesg | grep usb show USB devices
kldstat list all modules loaded in the kernel
kldload <module> load a kernel module for the current session
pbi_add -r <pbiname> install software from the command line
sysctl hw.realmem display hardware memory
sysctl hw.model display CPU model
sysctl hw.machine_arch display CPU Architecture
sysctl hw.ncpu display number of CPUs
uname -vm get release version information
gpart show show device partition information
fuser list IDs of all processes that have one or more files open


[edit] Additional Resources

The following articles and videos provide additional information about some of the differences between BSD and Linux:


References


  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berkeley_Software_Distribution
  2. http://e2fsprogs.sourceforge.net/
  3. http://www.catacombae.org/hfsx.html
  4. http://www.ufsexplorer.com/download_stdr.php
  5. http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/explaining-bsd/comparing-bsd-and-linux.html
  6. http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/linux-comparison/article.html
  7. http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/linux-users/index.html
  8. http://www.over-yonder.net/~fullermd/rants/bsd4linux/01
  9. http://www.freebsd.org/advocacy/whyusefreebsd.html
  10. http://www.unixmen.com/bsd-for-human-beings-interview/
  11. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xk6ouxX51NI
  12. http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/article.html
  13. http://bhami.com/rosetta.html
  14. http://www.leidinger.net/blog/2010/09/28/the-freebsd-linuxulator-explained-for-users/

List of Tables


  1. Table 1.4a: Filesystem Support on PC-BSD®
  2. Table 1.4b: Names for BSD and Linux Features
  3. Table 1.4c: Common BSD and Linux Commands
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