PC-BSD® für Linuxnutzer

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PC-BSD® basiert auf BSD Unix, was bedeutet, dass es keine Distribution von Linux ist. Wenn Sie zuvor ein Linux benutzt habe, werden Sie der Meinung sein, dass einige Funktionen, die Sie benutzten, auf einem BSD-System andere Namen haben und dass einige Kommandos anders sind. Dieses Kapitel behandelt einige dieser Unterschiede.


Sowohl BSD als auch Linux verwenden unterschiedliche Dateisysteme während der Installation. Viele Linux-Distributionen verwenden EXT2, EXT3, EXT4 oder ReiserFS, während PC-BSD® UFS oder ZFS nutzt. Sollten Sie einen Dual-Boot mit Linux verwenden wollen oder auf Daten auf einer externen Festplatte zugreifen, die mit einem anderen Dateisystem formatiert wurde wollen, werden Sie ein wenig Forschung betreiben müssen, um zu sehen, ob die Daten von beiden Betriebssystemen zugegriffen werden kann.

Die Tabelle 1.3a fasst die verschiedenen Dateisysteme zusammen, die häufig von Desktop-Systemen eingesetzt werden. Die meisten bei PC-BSD® verfügbaren Desktop-Manager sollten automatisch die folgenden Dateisysteme unterstützen: FAT16, FAT32, EXT2, EXT3 (ohne Journaling), EXT4 (read-only), NTFS5, NTFS6 und XFS. Siehe auch den Abschnitt über [[Files und File Sharing/10.1/de|Translations:Files und File Sharing/10.1/Page display title/de]] für weitere Informationen über die verfügbaren Datei-Manager-Werkzeuge.

Table 1.3a: Filesystem Support on PC-BSD® [tables 1]
Filesystem Native to Type of non-native support Usage notes
Btrfs Linux none
exFAT Windows none requires a license from Microsoft
EXT2 Linux r/w support loaded by default
EXT3 Linux r/w support loaded by default since EXT3 journaling is not supported, you will not be able to mount a filesystem requiring a journal replay unless you fsck it using an external utility such as e2fsprogs[1].
EXT4 Linux r/o support loaded by default EXT3 journaling, extended attributes, and inodes greater than 128-bytes are not supported; EXT3 filesystems converted to EXT4 may have better performance
FAT16 Windows r/w support loaded by default
FAT32 Windows r/w support loaded by default
HFS+ Mac OS X none older Mac versions might work with hfsexplorer[2].
JFS Linux none
NTFS5 Windows full r/w support loaded by default
NTFS6 Windows r/w support loaded by default
ReiserFS Linux r/o support is loaded by default
UFS2 PC-BSD®, FreeBSD check if your Linux distro provides ufsutils;
r/w support on Mac;
UFS Explorer[3] can be used on Windows
changed to r/o support in Mac Lion


Linux and BSD use different naming conventions for devices. For example:

  • in Linux, Ethernet interfaces begin with eth; in BSD, interface names indicate the name of the driver. For example, an Ethernet interface may be listed as re0, indicating that it uses the Realtek re driver. The advantage of this convention is that you can read the man 4 page for the driver (e.g. type man 4 re) to see which models and features are provided by that driver.
  • BSD disk names differ from Linux. IDE drives begin with ad and SCSI and USB drives begin with da.

Feature Names

Some of the features used by BSD have similar counterparts to Linux, but the name of the feature is different. Table 1.3b provides some common examples:

Table 1.3b: Names for BSD and Linux Features [tables 2]
PC-BSD® Linux Description
PF iptables default firewall
/etc/rc.d/ for operating system and /usr/local/etc/rc.d/ for applications rc0.d/, rc1.d/, etc. in PC-BSD® the directories containing the startup scripts do not link to runlevels as there are no runlevels; system startup scripts are separated from third-party application scripts
/etc/ttys and /etc/rc.conf telinit and init.d/ terminals are configured in ttys and rc.conf indicates which services will start at boot time


If you are comfortable with the command line, you may find that some of the commands that you are used to have different names on BSD. Table 1.3c lists some common commands and what they are used for.

Table 1.3c: Common BSD and Linux Commands [tables 3]
Command Used to:
dmesg discover what hardware was detected by the kernel
sysctl dev display configured devices
pciconf -l -cv show PCI devices
dmesg | grep usb show USB devices
kldstat list all modules loaded in the kernel
kldload <module> load a kernel module for the current session
pbi_add -r <pbiname> install software from the command line
sysctl hw.realmem display hardware memory
sysctl hw.model display CPU model
sysctl hw.machine_arch display CPU Architecture
sysctl hw.ncpu display number of CPUs
uname -vm get release version information
gpart show show device partition information
fuser list IDs of all processes that have one or more files open

File formats, size and updates

A common complaint is that the size of PC-BSD® PBI files are much larger than the actual program. What complaints of this sort often do not recognize is that very few installable applications are complete by themselves. If you take a look at what happens while the program is being compiled, or when you install a package, you will notice that there are additional applications being pulled in or downloaded and installed. These are all dependencies: things that the program will require in order to fully function. An application of any complexity, especially if it is desktop-oriented, is likely to depend upon many programs. These programs may relate to audio or video playback, window management, or libraries for encoding, compression, encryption.

A PBI file consists of the primary application, determined by its name, along with all of its dependencies. When you add a program with AppCafe®, you download the application and dependency bundle that we call a PBI. The first set of dependencies may be reused by other applications that you install later; however, every PBI file contains all the necessary dependencies, even if those that would be redundant are not installed.

Additional Resources

The following articles and videos provide additional information about some of the differences between BSD and Linux:


  1. http://e2fsprogs.sourceforge.net/
  2. http://www.catacombae.org/hfsx.html
  3. http://www.ufsexplorer.com/download_stdr.php
  4. http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/explaining-bsd/comparing-bsd-and-linux.html
  5. http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/linux-comparison/article.html
  6. http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/linux-users/index.html
  7. http://www.over-yonder.net/~fullermd/rants/bsd4linux/01
  8. http://www.freebsd.org/advocacy/whyusefreebsd.html
  9. http://www.unixmen.com/bsd-for-human-beings-interview/
  10. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xk6ouxX51NI
  11. http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/article.html
  12. http://bhami.com/rosetta.html

List of Tables

  1. Table 1.3a: Filesystem Support on PC-BSD®
  2. Table 1.3b: Names for BSD and Linux Features
  3. Table 1.3c: Common BSD and Linux Commands
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