PBI Module Builder Guide/9.2
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PC-BSD provides a unique file format known as a PBI (push button installer). PBI files end with the .pbi extension and are self-contained installation programs. This means that even novice users can safely install and uninstall PBIs without inadvertently overwriting or deleting files needed by the operating system or other applications.
A PBI file includes all the runtime and library dependencies required by the application. This means that a PBI is a large file, but this does not necessarily mean that the installed PBI will be that large. During installation, the PBI system compares the currently installed libraries and files with the ones contained within the PBI file and only installs the ones that are not already installed on the system. A hash database is used to eliminate dependency problems while allowing the computer to share libraries between different programs.
The PBI format changed between PC-BSD 8.x and 9.x. This section demonstrates how to create PBIs for PC-BSD 9.x and higher. Building PBIs for PC-BSD 8.x and Earlier describes the old format, but is considered to be deprecated.
Building PBIs for PC-BSD 9.x and higher
Creating a PBI from an existing FreeBSD port is a surprisingly easy and automated process that does not require development skills. Some ports are effortless to convert while more complex ports may require some thought and simple scripting.
Two utilities are available for converting FreeBSD ports into PBIs:
1. EasyPBI: provides a graphical interface and is available in Control Panel. See the EasyPBI section of the Handbook for instructions on how to use this utility.
2. pbi_makeport: provides a command line utility.
This section demonstrates how to use the pbi_makeport utility, explains the components of a PBI module, and provides some troubleshooting tips.
NOTE: before creating a PBI, check to see if one exists using the instructions in Submit PBI Requests. If you decide that you prefer to request a PBI that you need rather than to create one, that page also contains instructions for submitting a PBI request.
Creating a New PBI with pbi_makeport
Starting in PC-BSD 9.x and higher, pbi_makeport is included with the operating system. This utility provides an easy way for a user to convert an existing FreeBSD port into a PBI module. The PBI build server builds modules into PBIs which are then made available to users through AppCafe®. man pbi_makeport provides details on this application's various usage options.
When running pbi_makeport it is possible to supply an optional metadata configuration directory which contains additional data used to supplement the port building and the final PBI file. This configuration directory may contain extra icon data for the desktop, install/uninstall scripts, custom make options and more.
Examples of 9.x modules can be found at Examples in Subversion.
FreeBSD ports may contain build dependencies, runtime dependencies, and required libraries. When building a PBI, pbi_makeport automatically compiles all of the required dependencies, and, when finished compiling, prunes the build dependencies before packaging the PBI file, leaving only the runtime packages and libraries that are required for the program to work. This means that any files which are included in the PBI are necessary for the program to run, and manually removing them will cause the program to fail.
PBI Module Components
A PBI module contains the following components. When creating a PBI module, create a directory on your computer to hold the module's components. For example, if you are creating a PBI module for firefox, create a directory called firefox/ and place the following files within that directory. The directory that you create is referred to as %PBI_APPDIR%%.
1. LICENSE File
The text of a license agreement you want the user to click to accept before installation. This file is optional unless the underlying port is restricted and requires the user to accept a license in order to install and use the software.
The pbi.conf file is mandatory. It is a simple shell script that contains the information needed to build the PBI. Typically this file requires you to modify a few simple variables, such as the name of the program, its location in the ports tree, and the name of its icon. Sometimes you will need to set a few additional variables in order to make sure that required dependencies are included in the PBI. If you get stuck when creating your own pbi.conf, you can view the pbi.conf file for every PBI module in this section of the PC-BSD trac repository. Here is an example of the pbi.conf file for firefox:
#!/bin/sh # PBI Build Configuration # Place over-rides and settings here # # XDG Desktop Menu Spec: # http://standards.freedesktop.org/menu-spec/menu-spec-1.0.html ############################################################################## # Program Name PBI_PROGNAME="Firefox" # Program Website PBI_PROGWEB="http://www.mozilla.com" # Program Author / Vendor PBI_PROGAUTHOR="The Mozilla Foundation" # Default Icon (Relative to %%PBI_APPDIR%% or resources/) PBI_PROGICON="share/pixmaps/FireFox-128.png" # The target port we are building PBI_MAKEPORT="www/firefox" # Additional options for make.conf PBI_MAKEOPTS="PACKAGE_BUILDING=Y WITH_CUPS=yes WITH_GECKO=libxul" # Ports to build before / after PBI_MKPORTBEFORE="" PBI_MKPORTAFTER="audio/esound x11-fonts/dejavu x11-themes/qtcurve-gtk2 devel/gconf2 www/firefox-i18n" # Exclude List PBI_EXCLUDELIST="./include ./share/doc" # Increment to trigger rebuild of PBI on build servers PBI_BUILDKEY="04" # This app needs to install as root PBI_REQUIRESROOT="YES" # Set the priority of this build PBI_AB_PRIORITY="50" # Set the files we want to exclude from the shared hashdir PBI_HASH_EXCLUDES="lib/firefox/firefox" export PBI_PROGNAME PBI_PROGWEB PBI_PROGAUTHOR PBI_PROGICON PBI_MAKEPORT PBI_MAKEOPTS PBI_MKPORTBEFORE PBI_MKPORTAFTER PBI_BUILDKEY PBI_REQUIRESROOT PBI_EXCLUDELIST
Table 10.7a describes the most commonly used variables. When creating your pbi.conf file, you will want to refer to the FreeBSD port's Makefile and pkg-descr to determine which values to use.
Table 10.7a: Commonly Used pbi.conf Variables
|PBI_PROGNAME=||mandatory; should be the same value as PORTNAME= in the port's Makefile, but capitalized|
|PBI_PROGWEB=||mandatory unless does not exist; should be the same value as WWW= in the port's pkg-descr|
|PBI_PROGAUTHOR=||mandatory; often found in the port's pkg-descr or at the website for the application|
|PBI_PROGICON=||mandatory path, relative to %PBI_APPDIR%%, to application icon file in png format|
|PBI_PROGREVISION=||bump up a PBI's revision number; useful when rebuilding a port with new PBI specific options|
|PBI_MAKEPORT=||mandatory; the path to the port within /usr/ports/|
|PBI_MAKEOPTS=||optional; set this to the options that you want saved into make.conf for the port building process (e.g. WITH_CUPS=YES)|
|PBI_MKPORTBEFORE=||optional; port(s) to build before starting the target port PBI_MAKEPORT|
|PBI_MKPORTAFTER=||optional; port(s) to build after finishing the target port PBI_MAKEPORT|
|PBI_BUILDKEY=||should not be included; this variable is used on the PBI build server to force the rebuild of a PBI that has failed to build|
|PBI_REQUIRESROOT=||set to to YES to require this app to be installed as root; default is NO which allows it to be installed as a regular user|
|PBI_EXCLUDELIST=||list of files or directories to exclude from the final archive, such as ./include or ./share|
|PBI_AB_PRIORITY=||may be set by build server administrator; a higher number indicates a greater priority and will be built before lower priority PBIs|
|PBI_AB_NOTMPFS=||set to YES to disable using tmpfs when doing auto-builds on a server|
|PBI_HASH_EXCLUDES=||set to a space delimited list of files to exclude from merging into the shared hash-dir|
|export||mandatory; followed by a list of all of the variables that will be included when the PBI is built|
The optional external-links file contains a list of targets to link into the system's LOCALBASE at PBI installation time. This is useful for placing binaries and files in the user's PATH. When building PBIs from a FreeBSD port, this file is usually not needed, as most binaries and files are auto-detected and placed in the LOCALBASE. Example 10.7a shows an example usage:
Example 10.7a: Example external-links File
# Files to be Sym-Linked into the default LOCALBASE # One per-line, relative to %%PBI_APPDIR%% and LOCALBASE # Defaults to keeping any existing files in LOCALBASE # TARGET LINK IN LOCALBASE ACTION #etc/rc.d/servfoo etc/rc.d/servfoo keep #include/libfoo.h include/libfoo.h replace #etc/rc.d/servfoo etc/rc.d/servfoo keep bin/firefox3 bin/firefox3 binary,nocrash
The flags in the ACTION column are as follows:
- keep: if this file already exists in LOCALBASE, don't overwrite it
- replace: replace this file in LOCALBASE if it exists
- binary: this file is an executable
- nocrash: used for binary files; don't display crash handler if program exits with non-0 status
- linux: used for binary files; indicates that this is a Linux application, and needs to be run with Linux compat
The resources/ directory can contain extra files you wish copied into the PBI application directory. This is often the best place for icons and other files not included with a port.
This directory can contain the following scripts:
- post-install.sh: script run immediately after the extraction of PBI contents to disk
- post-portmake.sh: script run during building of the PBI file, after the port compile is finished
- pre-portmake.sh: script run during building of the PBI file, prior to the port compile
- pre-install.sh: script run before installation of the PBI; return non-0 to halt installation
- pre-remove.sh: script run before deletion of the PBI file
Table 10.7b summarizes the variables that may be used in these scripts:
Table 10.7b Supported Variables
|PBI_PROGNAME=||mandatory; should be the same value as PORTNAME= in the port's Makefile, but capitalized|
|PBI_PROGDIRNAME=||name of the subdirectory that is created for the PBI in /usr/pbi/ (e.g. "firefox-amd64" for the 64-bit Firefox PBI)|
|PBI_PROGDIRPATH=||full path to the PBI install directory (e.g. /usr/pbi/firefox-amd64/ for the 64-bit Firefox PBI)|
|PBI_PROGVERSION=||version of the program - should be the same value as the DISTVERSION in the port's Makefile|
|PBI_RCDIR=||location of rc.d/ directory used by PBIs, usually /usr/local/etc/rc.d|
|SYS_LOCALBASE=||LOCALBASE of the default system, typically /usr/local|
|PBI_FAKEBIN_DIR=||the binary wrapper directory, typically /usr/pbi/<pbidir>/.sbin/|
6. xdg-menu/ and xdg-desktop/
The xdg-menu/ and xdg-desktop/ directories can be used to supply menu and desktop icons, respectively. The file that you place in these directories should be in the format pbiname.desktop. Example 10.7b shows the firefox.desktop files for the firefox PBI:
Example 10.7b: firefox.desktop File
more xdg-menu/firefox.desktop #!/usr/bin/env xdg-open [Desktop Entry] Value=1.0 Type=Application Name=FireFox GenericName=FireFox Exec=%%PBI_EXEDIR%%/firefox %U Path=%%PBI_APPDIR%% Icon=%%PBI_APPDIR%%/share/pixmaps/FireFox-128.png StartupNotify=true Categories=Network; more xdg-desktop/firefox.desktop #!/usr/bin/env xdg-open [Desktop Entry] Value=1.0 Type=Application Name=FireFox GenericName=FireFox Exec=%%PBI_EXEDIR%%/firefox %U Path=%%PBI_APPDIR%% Icon=%%PBI_APPDIR%%/share/pixmaps/FireFox-128.png StartupNotify=true
%%PBI_EXEDIR%% should reference the PBI's executable and any required switches.
For more details on the XDG menu specifications, please refer to the freedesktop specifications.
The xdg-mime/ directory is used to register file associations according to the freedesktop MIME specs. This requires the creation of an XML file. The example shown in Figure 10.7c adds the MIME information for gimp, so that it can be available as an application choice in a web browser:
Example 10.7c: Gimp MIME Info
more xdg-mime/gimp-xdg.xml <?xml version="1.0"?> <mime-info xmlns='http://www.freedesktop.org/standards/shared-mime-info'> <mime-type type="application/x-gimp"> <comment>Gimp - XCF File</comment> <glob weight="100" pattern="*.xcf"/> <glob weight="100" pattern="*.XCF"/> </mime-type> </mime-info>
If your PBI's executable does not run, it may be because the program executable is actually a wrapper script rather than a binary file. If so, check the first line of the script to make sure it is using the right path for the scripting language. For example, #!/bin/python is an incorrect path which should be changed to #!/usr/pbi/(pbi-name)/bin/python.
The suggested path works because each program is packaged with the proper version of the language it uses and you want to make sure it uses that one. This is usually accomplished by putting a quick sed line in the post-install.sh script to fix the first line as seen in this example.
When testing the executable, use the one located in /usr/pbi/(pbi-name)/bin/ so all the linking will be properly set up. Otherwise you can get some interesting errors about missing files.
The PBI Developers mailing list can help if you:
- get stuck building a PBI
- need to ask a question about your PBI
- are ready to submit a new module
- find a bug in an existing PBI
- have a bugfix for an existing PBI