Fichers et partage

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This section describes the various file managers that are available for managing the files on your PC-BSD system. It then shows how you can configure your PC-BSD system to share files with other systems in your network using Samba.

Gestionnaire de fichiers et structure des fichiers

Depending upon which window managers you have installed, different graphical file manager utilities may already be installed for you. You do not need to be logged into a specific window manager to use an installed file manager. For example, if KDE is installed, you can run its file manager from any window manager by typing dolphin. KDE, GNOME, LXDE, and XFCE install their own file managers while most of the unsupported desktops assume that you will install your favorite file manager. Table 9.3a summarizes the available file managers and indicates which desktop they are installed with. Some file managers can be installed independent of a desktop using AppCafe® to install the PBI. Once a file manager is installed, type its name if you wish to run it from another desktop.


Table 9.3a: Available File Managers [tables 1]
File Manager Desktop/PBI Screenshots Notes
dolphin KDE http://dolphin.kde.org/features.html[1]
emelfm2 PBI http://emelfm2.net/wiki/ScreenShots[2]
/usr/local/GNUstep/Apps/FSViewer.app/FSViewer Window Maker
gnome-commander PBI http://www.nongnu.org/gcmd/shots.html[3]
krusader PBI http://www.krusader.org[4]
mucommander PBI http://www.mucommander.com/screenshots.php[5]
nautilus GNOME https://projects.gnome.org/nautilus/screenshots.html[6]
pcmanfm LXDE or PBI http://lxde.org/easy_fast_file_management_pcmanfm[7]
thunar XFCE or PBI http://www.xfce.org/projects/thunar[8] unable to automount internal NTFS disks (try pcmanfm or emelfm2 instead)
xfe PBI http://roland65.free.fr/xfe/index.php?page=screenshots[9]

When working with files on your PC-BSD system, save your own files to your home directory. Since most of the files outside of your home directory are used by the operating system and applications, you should not delete or modify any files outside of your home directory, unless you know what you are doing.

Table 9.3b summarizes the directory structure found on a PC-BSD system. man hier explains this directory structure in more detail.


Table 9.3b: PC-BSD Directory Structure [tables 2]
Directory Contents
/ pronounced as "root" and represents the beginning of the directory structure
/bin/ applications (binaries) that were installed with the operating system
/boot/ stores the startup code, including kernel modules (such as hardware drivers)
/compat/linux/ Linux software compatibility files
/dev/ files which are used by the operating system to access devices
/etc/ operating system configuration files
/etc/X11/ the xorg.conf configuration file
/etc/rc.d/ operating system startup scripts
/home/ subdirectories for each user account; each user should store their files in their own home directory
/lib/ operating system libraries needed for applications
/libexec/ operating system libraries and binaries
/media/ mount point for storage media such as DVDs and USB drives
/mnt/ another mount point
/proc/ the proc filesystem required by some Linux applications
/rescue/ necessary programs for emergency recovery
/root/ administrative account's home directory
/sbin/ operating system applications; typically only the superuser can run these applications
/tmp/ temporary file storage; files stored here may disappear when the system reboots
/usr/bin/ contains most of the command line programs available to users
/usr/local/ contains the binaries, libraries, startup scripts, documentation, and configuration files used by applications installed from ports or packages
/usr/pbi/ contains the binaries, libraries, startup scripts, documentation, and configuration files used by installed PBIs
/usr/local/share/fonts/ system wide fonts for graphical applications
/usr/local/share/icons/ system wide icons
/usr/ports/ location of system ports tree (if installed)
/usr/share/ system documentation and man pages
/usr/sbin/ command line programs for the superuser
/usr/src/ location of system source code (if installed)
/var/ files that change (vary), such as log files and print jobs

Samba

Samba[10] allows any operating system to share volumes using Microsoft's CIFS protocol. There are two components to Samba:

  • client libraries: this allows an operating system to access existing CIFS shares. The client is built into the Windows and Mac OS X operating systems and is installed for you during the PC-BSD installation. Most Linux distros also install the Samba client; if your Linux distro does not, search its software repository.
  • server: this allows a computer to act like a Windows server in that it can create shares and printers that are available to any CIFS client on the same network.

This section will demonstrate how to access shares using the Samba client as well as how to configure your PC-BSD system as a Samba server.

Utilisation du client Samba

Since the Samba client libraries are pre-installed for you, you simply have to decide which utility you prefer to access existing Windows shares on your network. If a desktop is installed, you do not have to be logged into that desktop in order to use that utility.

Table 9.3c summarizes the available utilities (type a utility's name to launch it in any desktop), which desktop it installs with and whether or not a separate PBI is available, and a short description of how to access the available shares using that utility.


Table 9.3c: Utilities that Support Windows Shares [tables 3]
Utility Desktop/PBI How to Access Existing Shares
dolphin KDE in the left frame, click on NetworkSamba Shares, then the Workgroup name; if the network requires a username and password to browse for shares, set this in Control PanelSystem SettingsSharing while in KDE or type systemsettingsSharing while in another desktop
konqueror KDE in the location bar, type smb:/
krusader PBI add Local Network to toolbar by going to SettingsConfigure Toolbars; once in toolbar click Local NetworkSamba Shares
mucommander PBI click on GoConnect to serverSMB; input the NETBIOS name of server, name of share, name of domain (or workgroup), and the share's username and password
nautilus GNOME click on GoNetworkWindows Network
smb4k PBI click on the "Network Neighborhood" tab
thunar XFCE or PBI in the left frame, click on NetworkWindows Network'

Configuration du serveur Samba

If you would like to share folders or a printer attached to your PC-BSD system with other users in your network, configure the built-in Samba server.

In order to create shares, Samba's configuration file, smb.conf[11], needs to be modified. You can either edit this file manually or use a GUI utility such as SWAT[12]. This section will demonstrate both methods.

Éditer smb.conf Manuellement

Pour modifier le fichier manuellement, devenir superutilisateur et copier le fichier exemple dans le répertoire de configuration:

cp /usr/local/share/examples/samba36/smb.conf.sample /usr/local/etc/smb.conf

Open the copied file in your favorite editor and review the default settings, editing them to match your network. In particular, check these global settings:

Figure 9.3a: SWAT Graphical Menu
  • workgroup = must match the Windows workgroup or domain name; unless the administrator has changed it, the default workgroup name is WORKGROUP
  • hosts allow = you should input the network address to restrict connections to the local network

In the share definitions section, review the [homes] settings. You can also define your own shares. This example will share the Downloads directory of user1 as read-only:

[Downloads]

path = /usr/home/user1/Downloads public = yes

writable = no

Pour tester vos modifications, redémarrer le service samba:

/usr/local/etc/rc.d/samba restart

and try browsing to the share from another system. Note that you may have to first map a drive to the share in order for it to appear in Windows Explorer or within the file manager utility of another PC-BSD or Linux system.

Créer un partage en utilisant SWAT

SWAT Procures une gestion graphique du smb.conf à travers un navigateur web.

To enable SWAT, remove the # at the beginning of this line in /etc/inetd.conf:

#swat stream tcp nowait/400 root /usr/local/sbin/swat swat

Ajouter la ligne suivante au /etc/rc.conf:

inetd_enable=”YES”

et lancer inetd:

/etc/rc.d/inetd start

To connect to SWAT, open a web browser and input the IP address of the PC-BSD computer followed by :901. When prompted, input the username root and the password associated with the superuser account. In the example shown in Figure 9.3a, the user has clicked on the "Globals" button in order to view the global settings.

One of the nice features of SWAT is the built-in help system. If you need more information about an option, simply click its "Help" hyperlink to access that section of the Samba documentation. The "shares" button allows you to quickly create shares and the "view" button allows you to review the current configuration.



  1. http://dolphin.kde.org/features.html
  2. http://emelfm2.net/wiki/ScreenShots
  3. http://www.nongnu.org/gcmd/shots.html
  4. http://www.krusader.org
  5. http://www.mucommander.com/screenshots.php
  6. https://projects.gnome.org/nautilus/screenshots.html
  7. http://lxde.org/easy_fast_file_management_pcmanfm
  8. http://www.xfce.org/projects/thunar
  9. http://roland65.free.fr/xfe/index.php?page=screenshots
  10. http://samba.org/
  11. http://samba.org/samba/docs/man/manpages-3/smb.conf.5.html
  12. http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/Samba-HOWTO-Collection/SWAT.html
  13. http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/Samba-HOWTO-Collection/ServerType.html#id2559114

List of Tables


  1. Table 9.3a: Available File Managers
  2. Table 9.3b: PC-BSD Directory Structure
  3. Table 9.3c: Utilities that Support Windows Shares
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