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Burning the Installation Media/9.2
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Once you have downloaded and verified the PC-BSD file, you will need to burn it to the correct media. This section demonstrates how to do so using several different applications and operating systems.
Burning the CD/DVD ISO File on Windows
Several burning applications are available for Windows. This section will demonstrate how to use Windows 7's Disc Image Burner, ImgBurn, Nero, and InfraRecorder.
Windows 7 Disc Image Burner
Windows 7 has built-in support for writing ISO images to disc. Right-click on the .iso file in Windows Explorer and select "Burn disc image" to launch Windows Disc Image Burner, shown in Figure 2.7.1a. Click "Burn" to write the disc. See the Microsoft article Burn a CD or DVD from an ISO file for more information.
Figure 2.7.1a: Windows Disc Image Burner
ImgBurn is an easy to use image burner for Windows that is available for free download. After installing and launching ImgBurn, insert a blank DVD media and select "Write image file to disk" from the main menu, seen in Figure 2.7.1b:
Figure 2.7.1b: Initial ImgBurn Screen
You can then use File -> Browse for a source file... to select the .iso file to burn; once selected, your screen should look similar to Figure 2.7.1c. Click the Write icon in the lower left corner to begin the burn.
Figure 2.7.1c: Selecting the Source File (.iso) and Destination (DVD burner) in ImgBurn
ImgBurn will provide a status bar to indicate the progress of the burn. When it is finished, ImgBurn will eject the DVD tray then reclose it in order to verify the burn. If the tray does not return itself, which may occur on a laptop, push the tray back in if you wish to verify the burn.
Nero is a popular commercial burning application for Windows. Although it is commercial, there are several free trial versions available for download from the Nero website. Depending upon the version you download and install, your screens may vary slightly from those shown here. This section demonstrates using Nero BurnLite 10.
To burn an ISO, launch Nero BurnLite, click the "Data Burning" tab, and then the + Add button to browse to the location of your .iso file. An example is seen in Figure 2.7.1d:
Figure 2.7.1d: Ready to Burn an ISO Using Nero BurnLite
Click the Burn button and Nero will start burning your disk. When it is finished, Nero will alert you that the burning process is complete and will eject the DVD.
InfraRecorder is an open source burning application for both CDs and DVDs. Once installed, open InfraRecorder and click on the "Write Image" button shown in Figure 2.7.1e:
Figure 2.7.1e: Initial InfraRecorder Screen
InfraRecorder will display a screen where you can browse to the location of the PC-BSD image. Once selected, you will be presented with an options screen shown in Figure 2.7.1f:
Figure 2.7.1f: Burn Options in InfraRecorder
You can accept the defaults and click OK to start the burn. When finished, the tray with the DVD will open and a dialog box will appear indicating that the burning process has finished.
Burning the CD/DVD ISO File on a Unix System
This section demonstrates how to burn the installation ISO using the following tools that may be available on a Linux or BSD system: K3B, Brasero, and growisofs.
The KDE desktop environment provides the K3B burning application. K3B has a similar interface to burning software found on Windows and is equally easy to use.
NOTE: depending upon your distribution, K3B may or may not be included with the installation of KDE. If it does not appear in the KDE application launcher, you should be able to install it using your operating system's software management system. On a FreeBSD system, you can install the K3B package. If you are running an older version of KDE, use the pkg_add -r k3b command. If you are running KDE4, use the pkg_add -r k3b-kde4 command instead. On a PC-BSD system, you can install the K3B PBI using Using AppCafe™.
To burn your ISO, launch K3B and click "Tools → Burn Image...". Figure 2.7.2a demonstrates this screen on a KDE4 system. On a KDE3 system, the menu item may appear as "Burn DVD ISO Image...".
Figure 2.7.2a: Selecting the Burn Image Tool Within K3B
A new window, seen in Figure 2.7.2b, will launch. Click the blue folder to browse to the location of your .iso file.
Figure 2.7.2b: K3B's Burn Image Screen
Once your file is listed, ensure a blank DVD is inserted and click the "Start" button. K3B will automatically eject the DVD once the burn is complete.
Brasero is an easy to use CD-ROM/DVD burner included with the GNOME desktop. To launch Brasero, click Applications -> Sound & Video -> Brasero Disk Burner and the dialog window shown in Figure 2.7.2c will be displayed.
Figure 2.7.2c: Brasero's Initial Screen
If you click on Burn image -> Click here to select a disk image, you will be able to select your .iso file. Once selected, click "Open" to return to the screen seen in Figure 2.7.2d:
Figure 2.7.2d: Viewing the Image to Burn and the DVD Hardware Properties Within Brasero
The name and size of your .iso file should appear and, assuming a blank DVD is inserted, Brasero will indicate the size of the media. The lower portion of Figure 2.7.2d shows the menu that appears if you click on the Properties button. You can change these options if you wish, but it is fine to keep the default settings. When you are ready, click the "Burn" button and Brasero will burn your ISO.
If you are familiar with using the command line on a FreeBSD system, you can use the growisofs command line utility to burn the DVD. This utility is included with the dvd+rw-tools FreeBSD port. If that software is not yet installed, issue this command as the superuser:
pkg_add -r dvd+rw-tools
Depending upon the type of DVD burner hardware, you may have to configure the system to use it. If the device is ATAPI (i.e. not USB or SCSI), the ATAPI driver must be loaded. The superuser can issue this command:
If you just get your prompt back, the driver successfully loaded. If you get the message "kldload: can't load atapicam: File exists", this means that the driver was already loaded. If the device is USB or SCSI, no additional drivers need to be loaded if you are running the generic FreeBSD kernel. After inserting the DVD media into the device, you can start the burn using this command:
growisofs -Z /dev/cd0=PCBSD9.0-BETA2-x86-DVD.iso
If your device is not the first CD device, change the number 0 accordingly. If your ISO has a different name, substitute the correct name in the command shown above.
Burning the CD/DVD ISO File on a Mac OSX System
To burn the ISO on a Mac OSX system, go to Finder -> Applications -> Utilities -> Disk Utility. With a blank media inserted into the burner, highlight the device representing the CD/DVD writer and click the Burn button. This will open up a browser where you can select the ISO that you with to burn. In the example shown in Figure 2.7.3a, the DVD ISO has been selected and the device is a Sony DVD writer.
Figure 2.7.3a: Using Disk Utility on Mac OSX
Once the ISO is highlighted, click the Burn button. A pop-up message will indicate that the device is ready to burn. Click burn once more and Disk Utility will write the ISO to the CD/DVD media.
Creating a Bootable USB from an ISO using UNetbootin
UNetbootin is a utility that converts an ISO to a bootable USB. This ability is handy if you don't have a CD/DVD device and prefer to use a graphical utility to manipulate an ISO rather than the command line dd utility to burn an .img file. To use UNetbootin you will need to download a PC-BSD ISO file (CD or DVD) and a USB thumb drive large enough to hold that file.
UNetbootin downloads are available for Windows, Mac OSX, and Linux. This section demonstrates how to create a bootable USB using a Windows 7 system.
After downloading and launching UNetbootin, you should see the screen shown in Figure 2.7.4a.
Figure 2.7.4a: Selecting the ISO in UNetbootin
In the Diskimage section, use the ... browse button to locate the ISO that you downloaded. Insert the USB thumb drive and ensure that the drive letter for the USB thumb drive is the same as the one shown in Windows Explorer. Click the OK button to extract and copy the files to the thumb drive. The application will tell you when it is finished. You can now reboot the system with the USB thumb drive inserted to start the PC-BSD installer.
NEEDS MODIFICATION OF SOMETHING FOR THIS TO WORK
Writing an IMG File to USB
To write an .img.bz2 file you will need the following:
- a utility that can extract bz2 zipped files
- a utility that can write the image to a USB media
- a USB thumb drive or hard drive large enough to hold the image. Be aware that some cheaper USB thumb drives do not have the capacity that they advertise. For example, a 4GB USB drive may actually contain less than the ~3.8GB required for a full image installation. If your installation fails, try using a larger capacity USB thumb drive.
The utilities that you use will depend upon your operating system.
Once the image is written, you can boot from the removable device and proceed with the installation. If you are using the boot-only img file, you will also need to refer to the section Install PC-BSD Over a Network as this image requires an Internet connection to download the rest of the files needed to complete the installation of PC-BSD.
NOTE: if the system does not boot from the removable device, check the boot order in your system BIOS.
Writing the IMG File on a Linux or BSD System
If you selected to download an .img.bz2 file instead of an ISO, you can write the image file to a flash card or removable USB drive using the bunzip2 and dd command line utilities on a BSD or Linux system. On a FreeBSD system, the superuser can use these commands to extract the specified image and write it to the first plugged in USB device:
bunzip2 PCBSD9.0-BETA1.5-x86-USBFULL.img.bz2 dd if=PCBSD9.0-BETA1.5-x86-USBFULL.img of=/dev/da0 bs=64k 63200+0 records in 63200+0 records out 4141875200 bytes transferred in 1395.261087 secs (2968531 bytes/sec)
When using the dd command:
- if= refers to the input file; in our case, the name of the file to be written; it should end with an .img extension
- of= refers to the output file; in our case, the device name of the flash card or removable USB drive. You may have to increment the number in the name if it is not the first USB device. On Linux the first USB device is usually /dev/sdb. When in doubt plug in the USB device, then run the command "dmesg". The last paragraph of the dmesg output will provide the proper name. Probably "sdb" or "sdc".
- bs= refers to the block size
NOTE For Linux Users: On Linux, you will see two (or more, as the case may be) device nodes corresponding to the usb stick. For example, /dev/sdc and /dev/sdc1. You can get the device node corresponding to the usb stick from the output of mount. The latter file /dev/sdc1 corresponds to primary partition of the usb stick. Before using the dd command, ensure that the usb stick is unmounted. When using the dd command, remember to use /dev/sdc (device node without the number) as the option for the output file of=. Also, remember that once the dd completes, you might not be able to mount the usb stick properly on Linux, for Linux has a very limited support of UFS, the BSD file system that gets created on the usb. Hence, it is not quite possible to even look at the files and directories created on the usb stick from Linux.
Writing the IMG File on a Windows System
When downloading win32-image-writer, download the latest version that ends in -binary.zip and use a utility such as WinZip or 7zip to unzip the executable.
To extract the PC-BSD image file using 7-Zip, browse to the location containing your downloaded .img.bz2 file, as seen in Figure 2.7.4a.
Figure 2.7.4a: Using 7-Zip to Extract Image File
Click the Extract button and browse to the location where you would like to save the extracted image. Once extracted, your image will end in .img and is now ready to be written to a USB device using the win32-image-writer application.
If you launch win32-image-writer.exe, it will start the Win32 Disk Imager utility, shown in Figure 2.7.4b. Use the browse button to browse to the location of the .img file. Insert a USB thumb drive and select its drive letter (in this example, drive F). Click the Write button and the image will be written to the USB thumb drive.
Figure 2.7.4b: Using Win32 Disk Imager to Write the Image
Writing the IMG File on a Mac OSX System
To extract the img.bz2 file on a Mac system, use Finder to browse to the location of the file, as seen in Figure 2.7.4c.
Figure 2.7.4c: Extracting the Image on Mac
Simply double-click the file to extract it to the .img format. Finder will create a second file with the .img extension.
To burn that .img file, insert a USB stick and open Terminal. Run the diskutil list command to find out the device name of the USB disk, unmount the USB disk, then use dd to write the image. In the example shown in Figure 2.7.4d, an 8GB USB stick has a device name of /dev/disk1.
Figure 2.7.4d: Writing the Image File Within Terminal