Difference between revisions of "Boot Manager/9.2"

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* if you are making software changes to a boot environment, you can take a snapshot of that environment at any stage during modifications by using the '''beadm create''' command. A snapshot is a read-only image of a boot environment at a given point in time. A snapshot is not bootable but you can create a boot environment, based on that snapshot, by using the '''beadm create -e''' command followed by the '''beadm activate''' command to specify that this boot environment will become the default boot environment on the next reboot.
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* if you are making software changes to a boot environment, you can take a snapshot of that environment at any stage during the modifications.
 
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* you can create custom names for each snapshot to identify when or why that snapshot was created. You can use the '''beadm list -s''' command to view the available snapshots for a boot environment.
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* you can save multiple boot environments on your system and perform various updates on each of them as needed. For example, you can clone a boot environment by using the '''beadm create''' command. A clone is a bootable copy of a boot environment. You can install, test, and update different software packages on the original boot environment and on its clone.
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* you can save multiple boot environments on your system and perform various updates on each of them as needed. You can install, test, and update different software packages on each.
  
 
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{{warning|icon64=for boot environments to work properly, ''' ''do not change the default ZFS layout during installation.'' ''' The default ZFS layout ensures that when you create multiple boot environments, the ''/usr/pbi/'', ''/usr/local/'', ''/usr/home/'', ''/usr/ports/'', ''/usr/src/'' and ''/var/'' directories remain untouched. This way, if you rollback to a previous boot environment, you will not lose data in your home directories, any installed applications, or downloaded src or ports.}}
 
{{warning|icon64=for boot environments to work properly, ''' ''do not change the default ZFS layout during installation.'' ''' The default ZFS layout ensures that when you create multiple boot environments, the ''/usr/pbi/'', ''/usr/local/'', ''/usr/home/'', ''/usr/ports/'', ''/usr/src/'' and ''/var/'' directories remain untouched. This way, if you rollback to a previous boot environment, you will not lose data in your home directories, any installed applications, or downloaded src or ports.}}
  
=== Managing Boot Environments === <!--T:10-->
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=== Managing Boot Environments Using Boot Manager===
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To create and manager boot environments using a graphical interface, go to Control Panel ➜ Boot Manager or type '''pc-su pc-bootconfig'''. You will be prompted to enter your password.
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During installation, PC-BSD® creates a boot environment named ''default''. As seen in Figure 8.4a, an entry for this boot environment will be displayed in the Boot Manager screen. 
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'''Figure 8.4a: Managing Boot Environments'''
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[[File:Boot1.png]]
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From top to bottom, the icons on the far left are used to:
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'''Create:''' a new boot environment. You should do this before making any changes to the system that may impact on your current boot environment. You will be prompted for a name. Once you click OK, the system will create the environment, then add it to the list of boot environments. Its ''Running'' status will show as ''No'', until you activate it. Regardless of the number of boot environments, only one will have a ''Running'' status of ''Yes''.
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'''Remove:''' will delete the highlighted boot environment. You can not delete the boot environment which has a ''Running'' status of ''Yes''.
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'''Copy:''' makes a mountable copy? of the
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'''Rename:'''
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'''Activate:'''
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'''Figure 8.4b: Managing GRUB Configuration'''
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[[File:Boot3.png]]
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=== Managing Boot Environments From the Command Line === <!--T:10-->
  
 
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The flags now indicate that the system is currently booted into ''default'', but at next boot the system will boot into ''beforeupgrade''. Only one boot environment can be active at a time.
 
The flags now indicate that the system is currently booted into ''default'', but at next boot the system will boot into ''beforeupgrade''. Only one boot environment can be active at a time.
  
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'''Figure 8.4a: Managing Boot Environments'''
 
  
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[[File:Boot1.png]]
 
 
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'''Figure 8.4b: Managing GRUB Configuration'''
 
 
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[[File:Boot3.png]]
 
  
  

Revision as of 13:16, 26 August 2013

(Sorry for the inconvenience)

Contents

THIS PAGE NEEDS UPDATING

PC-BSD® supports a feature of ZFS known as multiple boot environments (BEs). With multiple boot environments, the process of updating software becomes a low-risk operation as you can backup your current boot environment before upgrading or making software updates to your system. If needed, you also have the option of booting into a backup boot environment. For example:

  • if you are making software changes to a boot environment, you can take a snapshot of that environment at any stage during the modifications.
  • you can save multiple boot environments on your system and perform various updates on each of them as needed. You can install, test, and update different software packages on each.
  • although only one boot environment can be active at a time, you can mount an inactive boot environment using the beadm mount command. You could then chroot into the mount point in order to update specific packages on the mounted environment.
  • you can move a boot environment to another machine, physical or virtual, in order to check hardware support.


WARNING For boot environments to work properly, do not change the default ZFS layout during installation. The default ZFS layout ensures that when you create multiple boot environments, the /usr/pbi/, /usr/local/, /usr/home/, /usr/ports/, /usr/src/ and /var/ directories remain untouched. This way, if you rollback to a previous boot environment, you will not lose data in your home directories, any installed applications, or downloaded src or ports.

Managing Boot Environments Using Boot Manager

To create and manager boot environments using a graphical interface, go to Control Panel ➜ Boot Manager or type pc-su pc-bootconfig. You will be prompted to enter your password.

During installation, PC-BSD® creates a boot environment named default. As seen in Figure 8.4a, an entry for this boot environment will be displayed in the Boot Manager screen.

Figure 8.4a: Managing Boot Environments

Boot1.png

From top to bottom, the icons on the far left are used to:

Create: a new boot environment. You should do this before making any changes to the system that may impact on your current boot environment. You will be prompted for a name. Once you click OK, the system will create the environment, then add it to the list of boot environments. Its Running status will show as No, until you activate it. Regardless of the number of boot environments, only one will have a Running status of Yes.

Remove: will delete the highlighted boot environment. You can not delete the boot environment which has a Running status of Yes.

Copy: makes a mountable copy? of the

Rename:

Activate:

Figure 8.4b: Managing GRUB Configuration

Boot3.png

Managing Boot Environments From the Command Line

Boot environments are managed with the beadm command which must be run as the superuser. The following example creates a BE named beforeupgrade. The new BE is a clone of the current BE, the ZFS environment that you booted into.

beadm create beforeupgrade Created successfully

To view all BEs, use the list command

beadm list

BE Active Mountpoint Space Policy Created default NR / 6.05G static 2012-07-09 05:06

beforeupgrade - - 1K static 2012-07-10 12:25
The possible flags in the "Active" field are as follows:
  • R: active on reboot
  • N: active now
  • -: inactive

In this example, the current BE is called default, it is active now, and at next reboot; and it is mounted. The newly created beforeupgrade BE exists, but is inactive and unmounted. To activate the new BE:

beadm activate beforeupgrade

Activated successfully beadm list BE Active Mountpoint Space Policy Created default N / 64.5K static 2012-07-09 05:06

beforeupgrade R - 6.05G static 2012-07-10 12:25

The flags now indicate that the system is currently booted into default, but at next boot the system will boot into beforeupgrade. Only one boot environment can be active at a time.



References


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