Benutzerverwaltung

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This page is a translated version of a page User Manager/10.0 and the translation is 44% complete.


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Die PC-BSD®-Benutzerverwaltung ermöglicht Ihnen das einfache Hinzufügen und Entfernen von Benutzern und Gruppen, als auch die Änderung eines Benutzers oder die Eingabe Passworts des Benutzers root. Um dieses Dienstprogramm aufzurufen, gehen Sie in die Error in {{Traverse}} oder tippen pc-su pc-usermanager in der Eingabeaufforderung ein. Sie werden dann zur Eingabe Ihres Passwort aufgefordert.


Abbildung 8.10a: Ansicht der Benutzerkonten in der Benutzerverwaltung

Benuzterkontoverwaltung

Im Beispiel 8.10a hat das System zwei Benutzerkonten. Das Konto dru wird Superuser, wenn die Checkbox "Kann das System administrieren" aktiviert ist.

Wenn Sie auf "Entfernen" für einen markierten Benutzer klicken, erscheint ein Popup-Menü mit der Frage, ob Sie das Benutzerverzeichnis (inklusive Dateien) löschen möchten. Wenn Sie "Nein" klicken, wird der Benutzer gelöscht, aber das Benutzerverzeichnis bleibt erhalten. Wenn Sie nur ein Benutzerkonto erstellt haben, wird die "Entfernen"-Schaltfläche ausgegraut, da mindestens ein Benutzer in der Lage sein muß, sich auf Ihrem PC-BSD®-System anzumelden.

ANMERKUNG: While a removed user will no longer be listed, the user account will not actually be deleted until you click the "Apply" button. A pop-up message will indicate that you have pending changes if you close User Manager without clicking "Apply". If you change your mind, click "No" and the user account will not be deleted; otherwise, click "Yes" and the user will be deleted and User Manager will close.

The password for any user can be changed by first highlighting the user name then clicking the "Change Password" button. You will not be prompted for the old password in order to reset a user's password; this can be handy if a user has forgotten their password and can no longer log into the PC-BSD® system. If you click the "Change Admin Password" button, you can change the root password.

ACHTUNG! Do not change the user's password if you checked the “Encrypt user files” box in either the Create a User screen or by clicking the “Add” button within User Manager. The password is associated with the user's encryption key, meaning that the contents of the user's home directory will become permanently inaccessible if the password is changed. A future version of PC-BSD® will add a utility to make it easy to change the password for a user with an encrypted home directory.

If you click the "Advanced View" button, this screen will change to show all of the accounts on the system, not just the user accounts that you created. An example is seen in Figure 8.10b.

Abbildung 8.10a: Ansicht der Benutzerkonten in der Benutzerverwaltung

The accounts that you did not create are known as system accounts and are needed by the operating system or installed applications. You should not delete any accounts that you did not create yourself as doing so may cause a previously working application to stop working. "Advanced View" provides additional information associated with each account, such as the user ID number, full name (description), home directory, default shell, and primary group. System accounts usually have a shell of nologin for security reasons, meaning that an attacker cannot try to login to the system using that account name.

Figure 8.10c shows the add user account creation screen that opens when you click the "Add" button.

ANMERKUNG: If you click the "Add" button while in "Simple View", you will only be prompted to enter the username, full name, password, and to optionally encrypt that user's files.
Figure 8.10c: Creating a New User Account

This screen is used to input the following information when adding a new user or system account:

Full Name: this field provides a description of the account and can contain spaces. If it is a user account, use the person's first and last name. If it is a system account, input a description to remind you which application uses the account.

Username: the name the user will use when they log in to the system; it is case sensitive and can not contain any spaces. If you are creating a system account needed by an application, use the name provided by the application's installation instructions. If the name that you choose already exists as an account, it will be highlighted in red and the utility will prompt you to use another name.

Home Directory: leave this field empty for a user account as the system will automatically create a ZFS dataset for the user's home directory under /usr/home/username. However, if you are creating a system account it is important to override this default by typing in /var/empty or /nonexistent unless the application's installation instructions specify that the account needs a specific home directory.

Shell: this drop-down menu contains the shells that are available to users when they are at a command prompt. You can either keep the default or select a shell which the user prefers.

Primary Group: if you leave the default button of "New Group" selected, a group will be created with the same name as the user. This is usually what you want unless you are creating a system account and the installation instructions specify a different group name. Note that the drop-down menu for specifying a group name will only show existing groups, but you can quickly create a group using the "Groups" tab.

Password: the password is case-sensitive and needs to be confirmed.

Encrypt Files: if this box is selected, the user's home directory will automatically be encrypted with PEFS[1]. When the user logs in, the contents of their home directory are automatically decrypted after they enter their password. When they logout, the contents of their home directory are automatically encrypted and will appear as gibberish to other users who do not know the password. For this reason, it is important to select a good password that the user will not forget. At this time, there is no easy mechanism for changing the user's password if their home directory is encrypted. A future version of PC-BSD® will add a utility to allow the user to manage their password and encryption key.

Once you have made your selections, press the "Ok" button to create the account.

Gruppenverwaltung

Wenn Sie die Registerkarte "Gruppen" klicken, werden alle Gruppen des Systems angezeigt, wie in Abbildung 8.10d ​​zu sehen.

Abbildung 8.10d: Gruppen mit der Benutzerverwaltung verwalten

Dieses Fenster hat 3 Spalten:

Gruppen: zeigt alle Gruppen des Systems an.

Verfügbar: zeigt alle System- und Benutzerkonten des Systems in alphabetischer Reihenfolge an.

Mitglieder: zeigt alle Benutzerkonten der markierten Gruppe an.

To add an account to a group, highlight the group name in the first column. Then, highlight the account name in the "Available" column. Click the right arrow and the selected account will appear in the "Members" column. You should only add user accounts to groups that you create yourself or when an application's installation instructions indicate that an account needs to be added to a group.

If you click the "Add" button, a pop-up menu will prompt you for the name of the new group. Once you press "OK", the group will be added to the "Groups" column.

If you click the "Remove" button, the highlighted group will automatically be deleted after you press the "Apply" button, so be sure to do this with care. Again, do not remove any groups that you did not create yourself or applications that used to work may stop working.


Verweise


  1. http://wiki.freebsd.org/PEFS
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