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Contents


Preface
Flat html/content/de

Verweise



Translations:Introduction/Page display title/de

Introduction/de


Translations:Goals and Features/Page display title/de

Goals and Features/de


Translations:What's New in 9.2/Page display title/de

What's New in 9.2/de


Translations:PC-BSD® Releases/Page display title/de

PC-BSD® Releases/de


Translations:PC-BSD® for Linux Users/Page display title/de

PC-BSD® for Linux Users/de


Translations:Pre-Installation Tasks/Page display title/de

Pre-Installation Tasks/de


Translations:Hardware Requirements/Page display title/de

Hardware Requirements/de


Translations:Laptops/Page display title/de

Laptops/de


Translations:Partitioning the Hard Drive/Page display title/de

Partitioning the Hard Drive/de


Translations:Obtaining PC-BSD®/Page display title/de

Obtaining PC-BSD®/de


Translations:Burning the Installation Media/Page display title/de

Burning the Installation Media/de


Translations:PC-BSD® Live Mode/Page display title/de

PC-BSD® Live Mode/de


Translations:Using VirtualBox/Page display title/de

Using VirtualBox/de


Translations:Installing PC-BSD®/Page display title/de

Installing PC-BSD®/de


Translations:Starting the PC-BSD® Installation/Page display title/de

Starting the PC-BSD® Installation/de


Translations:Language Selection Screen/Page display title/de

Language Selection Screen/de


Translations:System Selection Screen/Page display title/de

System Selection Screen/de


Translations:Disk Selection Screen/Page display title/de

Disk Selection Screen/de


Translations:Installation Progress Screen/Page display title/de

Installation Progress Screen/de


Translations:Installation Finished Screen/Page display title/de

Installation Finished Screen/de


Translations:Post Installation Configuration and Installation Troubleshooting/Page display title/de

Post Installation Configuration and Installation Troubleshooting/de


Translations:Booting Into PC-BSD®/Page display title/de

Booting Into PC-BSD®/de


Translations:Language Screen/Page display title/de

Language Screen/de


Translations:Time Zone Selection Screen/Page display title/de

Time Zone Selection Screen/de


Translations:Set Root Password Screen/Page display title/de

Set Root Password Screen/de


Translations:Create a User Screen/Page display title/de

Create a User Screen/de


Translations:Connect to a Wireless Network/Page display title/de

Connect to a Wireless Network/de


Translations:Post Install Finished Screen/Page display title/de

Post Install Finished Screen/de


Translations:Logging In/Page display title/de

Logging In/de


Translations:Installation Troubleshooting/Page display title/de

Installation Troubleshooting/de


Translations:Advanced Installation Topics/Page display title/de

Advanced Installation Topics/de


Translations:Install a Server/Page display title/de

Install a Server/de


Translations:Dual Booting/Page display title/de

Dual Booting/de


Multiple-Bootumgebungen

PC-BSD® supports a feature of ZFS known as multiple boot environments (BEs). With multiple boot environments, the process of updating software becomes a low-risk operation as you can backup your current boot environment before upgrading or making software updates to your system. If needed, you also have the option of booting into a backup boot environment. For example:

  • if you are making software changes to a boot environment, you can take a snapshot of that environment at any stage during modifications by using the beadm create command. A snapshot is a read-only image of a boot environment at a given point in time. A snapshot is not bootable but you can create a boot environment, based on that snapshot, by using the beadm create -e command followed by the beadm activate command to specify that this boot environment will become the default boot environment on the next reboot.
  • you can create custom names for each snapshot to identify when or why that snapshot was created. You can use the beadm list -s command to view the available snapshots for a boot environment.
  • you can save multiple boot environments on your system and perform various updates on each of them as needed. For example, you can clone a boot environment by using the beadm create command. A clone is a bootable copy of a boot environment. You can install, test, and update different software packages on the original boot environment and on its clone.
  • although only one boot environment can be active at a time, you can mount an inactive boot environment using the beadm mount command. You could then chroot into the mount point in order to update specific packages on the mounted environment.
  • you can move a boot environment to another machine, physical or virtual, in order to check hardware support.
WARNUNG For boot environments to work properly, do not change the default ZFS layout during installation. The default ZFS layout ensures that when you create multiple boot environments, the /usr/pbi/, /usr/local/, /usr/home/, /usr/ports/, /usr/src/ and /var/ directories remain untouched. This way, if you rollback to a previous boot environment, you will not lose data in your home directories, any installed applications, or downloaded src or ports.

Managing Boot Environments

Boot environments are managed with the beadm command which must be run as the superuser. The following example creates a BE named beforeupgrade. The new BE is a clone of the current BE, the ZFS environment that you booted into.

beadm create beforeupgrade Created successfully

To view all BEs, use the list command

beadm list

BE Active Mountpoint Space Policy Created default NR / 6.05G static 2012-07-09 05:06

beforeupgrade - - 1K static 2012-07-10 12:25
The possible flags in the "Active" field are as follows:
  • R: active on reboot
  • N: active now
  • -: inactive

In this example, the current BE is called default, it is active now, and at next reboot; and it is mounted. The newly created beforeupgrade BE exists, but is inactive and unmounted. To activate the new BE:

beadm activate beforeupgrade

Activated successfully beadm list BE Active Mountpoint Space Policy Created default N / 64.5K static 2012-07-09 05:06

beforeupgrade R - 6.05G static 2012-07-10 12:25

The flags now indicate that the system is currently booted into default, but at next boot the system will boot into beforeupgrade. Only one boot environment can be active at a time.



Translations:Upgrading PC-BSD®/Page display title/de

Upgrading PC-BSD®/de


Translations:Creating an Automated Installation with pc-sysinstall/Page display title/de

Creating an Automated Installation with pc-sysinstall/de


Translations:Desktops/Page display title/de

Desktops/de


Translations:GNOME2/Page display title/de

GNOME2/de


Translations:KDE4/Page display title/de

KDE4/de


Translations:LXDE/Page display title/de

LXDE/de


Translations:XFCE4/Page display title/de

XFCE4/de


Translations:Awesome/Page display title/de

Awesome/de


Enlightenment

Enlightenment[1] is a lean, fast, modular, and extensible window manager. It provides a desktop for launching applications, managing windows, and doing other system tasks like suspending, reboots, and managing files.
Figure 6.6a: Enlightenment Running on PC-BSD®

The first time you run Enlightenment, you will be prompted to select your Language, then either a touchscreen or a standard computer profile. You will then be prompted to select the size of title bars, the type of window focus, and whether or not to use compositing. If in doubt, you can select the defaults by pressing "Next" at each initial configuration screen.

Figure 6.6a shows a screenshot of Enlightenment running a standard computer profile on PC-BSD® 9.2. The icon on the far left of the iBar has been clicked in order to access the applications menu.

Enlightenment is very customizable. The User Guide[2] describes how to configure windows, shelves, menus, wallpaper, and much more.



Evilwm

evilwm[3] is an extremely light window manager. It does not support window decorations or icons and uses keyboard shortcuts to access xterms in order to run applications from the command line. Figure 6.7a shows a screenshot of evilwm running on PC-BSD® 9.2.

Figure 6.7a: evilwm Running on PC-BSD®

Notice that there are no icons, nor is there a system tray, an application panel, or window buttons. An xterm has been opened using Ctrl+Alt+Enter and shows the output of the ps command.

The keyboard shortcuts for manipulating windows are listed on the evilwm site[4].

To exit evilwm and return to the login screen, type killall evilwm within an xterm.



Translations:Fluxbox/Page display title/de

Fluxbox/de


Translations:FVWM/Page display title/de

FVWM/de


Translations:I3/Page display title/de

I3/de


Translations:IceWM/Page display title/de

IceWM/de


Translations:Openbox/Page display title/de

Openbox/de


Translations:Ratpoison/Page display title/de

Ratpoison/de


Translations:Spectrwm/Page display title/de

Spectrwm/de


Translations:WindowLab/Page display title/de

WindowLab/de


Translations:Window Maker/Page display title/de

Window Maker/de


Translations:Installing Applications and Keeping PC-BSD® Updated/Page display title/de

Installing Applications and Keeping PC-BSD® Updated/de


Translations:Using AppCafe®/Page display title/de

Using AppCafe®/de


Translations:PBI Manager/Page display title/de

PBI Manager/de


Translations:Update Manager/Page display title/de

Update Manager/de


Translations:Meta Package Manager/Page display title/de

Meta Package Manager/de


Translations:Create Your Own PBI Repository/Page display title/de

Create Your Own PBI Repository/de


Translations:Control Panel/Page display title/de

Control Panel/de


Translations:EasyPBI/Page display title/de

EasyPBI/de


Translations:About/Page display title/de

About/de


Translations:Active Directory & LDAP/Page display title/de

Active Directory & LDAP/de


Translations:Hardware Compatibility/Page display title/de

Hardware Compatibility/de


Translations:GDM Configuration/Page display title/de

GDM Configuration/de


Translations:Service Manager/Page display title/de

Service Manager/de


Translations:System Manager/Page display title/de

System Manager/de


Translations:User Manager/Page display title/de

User Manager/de


Translations:Bluetooth Manager/Page display title/de

Bluetooth Manager/de


Translations:Mount Tray/Page display title/de

Mount Tray/de


Translations:Sound Configuration/Page display title/de

Sound Configuration/de


Translations:Display/Page display title/de

Display/de


Translations:Printing/Page display title/de

Printing/de


Translations:Scanner/Page display title/de

Scanner/de


Translations:Network Configuration/Page display title/de

Network Configuration/de


Translations:Firewall Manager/Page display title/de

Firewall Manager/de


Translations:Life Preserver/Page display title/de

Life Preserver/de


Translations:Adobe Flash Player preferences/Page display title/de

Adobe Flash Player preferences/de


Warden®

Warden® is an easy to use, graphical jail[5] management program.
Abbildung  Is there no version? a: Initial Warden® Screen
Using Warden®, it is possible to create multiple, isolated virtual instances of FreeBSD which can be used to run services such as Apache, PHP, or MySQL in a secure manner. Each jail is considered to be a unique FreeBSD operating system and whatever happens in that jail will not affect your operating system or other jails running on the PC-BSD® system.

Some of the features in Warden® include the ability to:

  • Das Erstellen von drei Arten von Jails: Ein traditionelle Jail für FreeBSD für das laufen lassen von Diensten für das Netzwerk; eine (weniger sichere) Jail für Ports für das gesicherte installieren und laufen lassen von Ports/Paketen von FreeBSD von Ihrem System mit PC‑BSD®; und eine Jail zum Installieren von Linux
  • Setzen von verschiedenen Adressen für IPv4 und IPv6 je Jail
  • schnelles Installieren üblicher Anwendungen für einen Server im Netzwerk basierend je Jail
  • Aktualisieren installierter Software basierend je Jail
  • Verwalten von Benutzerin- oder Benutzerkonten basierend je Jail
  • Verwalten von Schnappschüssen für ZFS basierend je Jail
  • Exportieren einer Jail, welche dann in die selbe oder eine andere Jail importiert werden kann

Erstellen einer Jail mit der Version mit GUI von Warden®

Warden® can be started by clicking on its icon in Control Panel or by typing pc-su warden gui from the command line. You will be prompted for your password as administrative access is needed to create and manage jails. The initial Warden® configuration screen is shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? a.

To create your first jail, click the "New Jail" button or go to FileNew Jail. A jail creation wizard, seen in Abbildung  Is there no version? b, will launch.

Abbildung  Is there no version? b: Creating the New Jail

The first screen in the jail creation wizard will prompt you for the following information:

Hostname: you can change the default of "Jailbird" to another value. The hostname must be unique on your network and can not contain a space. Use a hostname that reminds you of the type of jail and your reason for creating it.

IPV4 Address: input the IPv4 address to be used by the jail and access its contents. Choose an address on your network that is not already in use by another computer or jail and which will not conflict with the address range assigned by a DHCP server.

IPv6 Address: if you plan to access the jail and its contents using IPv6, check the "IPv6 Address" box and input an IPv6 address that is not already in use by another computer or jail on your network.

When finished, click "Next" to select the type of jail, as shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? c:

Abbildung  Is there no version? c: Select the Type of Jail

There are three types of jails supported by Warden®:

Traditional Jail: select this type if you are creating the jail in order to install and run network services. For example, this type of jail is appropriate if you wish to run a web server or a database which is accessible to other systems on a network or over the Internet. This is the most secure type of jail as it is separate from the PC-BSD® host and any other jails that you create using Warden®. By default, FreeBSD's next generation of package management, known as pkgng, and the command line versions of the PC-BSD® utilities are added to a default FreeBSD installation. If you do not plan to use these tools, uncheck the box “Install PKGNG and PC-BSD utilities”. If you have already created a jail template, select the desired operating system version from the “Jail Version” drop-down menu.

Ports Jail: select this type of jail if your intention is to install software using FreeBSD packages and ports and you wish to have access to that software from your PC-BSD® system or if you plan to install any GUI applications within the jail. This type of jail is less secure then a traditional jail as applications are shared between the jail and the PC-BSD® system. This means that you should not use this type of jail to install services that will be available to other machines over a network.

Linux Jail: select this type of jail if you would like to install a Linux operating system within a jail. Linux jail support is considered to be experimental and is limited to 32-bit.

The remaining screens will differ depending upon the type of jail that you select.

Traditional or Ports Jail

If you select "Traditional Jail", you will be prompted to set the root password as seen in Abbildung  Is there no version? d.

Abbildung  Is there no version? d: Setting the Traditional Jail's Root Password

Input and confirm the password then press "Next" to see the screen shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? e. If you instead select to create a "Ports Jail", you will go directly to Abbildung  Is there no version? e.


Abbildung  Is there no version? e: Select the Jail Options

This screen allows you to install the following options:

Include system source: if you check this box, make sure that /usr/src/ exists on the PC-BSD system as the source is copied to the jail from this location. If it is not installed, use Control Panel ➜ System Manager ➜ Tasks ➜ Fetch PC-BSD System Source to install it.

Include ports tree: if you check this box, the latest version of the ports tree will be downloaded into /usr/ports/ of the jail. This will allow you to compile FreeBSD ports within this jail.

Start jail at system bootup: if this box is checked, the jail will be started (become available) whenever you boot your main system. If the box is not checked, you can manually start the jail whenever you wish to access it using Warden®.

Once you have made your selections, click the "Finish" button to create the jail. Warden® will display a pop-up window containing status messages as it downloads the files it needs and creates and configures the new jail.

Once Warden® is finished creating the jail, a message should appear at the bottom of the pop-up window indicating that the jail has been successfully created. Click the "Close" button to return to the main screen.

Linux Jail

If you select the "Linux Jail" and click "Next", you will be prompted to set the root password as seen in Abbildung  Is there no version? d. After inputting the password, the wizard will prompt you to select a Linux install script, as seen in Abbildung  Is there no version? f.

Abbildung  Is there no version? f: Select the Linux Distribution to Install

The installation script is used to install the specified Linux distribution. At this time, installation scripts for Debian Wheezy and Gentoo are provided.

ANMERKUNG: A Linux installation script is simply a shell script which invokes a Linux network installation. In the case of Debian Wheezy, it invokes the debootstrap command.

Once you select the install script, the wizard will ask if you would like to start the jail at boot time as seen in Abbildung  Is there no version? g.

Abbildung  Is there no version? g: Linux Jail Options

Click the "Finish" button to begin the Linux installation.

Configuring Existing Jails From the GUI

Once a jail is created, an entry for the jail will be added to the "Installed Jails" box and the tabs within Warden® will become available. Each entry indicates the jail's hostname, whether or not it is currently running, and whether or not any updates are available for the meta-packages installed within the jail. The buttons beneath the "Installed Jails" box can be used to start/stop the highlighted jail, configure the jail, add a new jail, or delete the highlighted jail.

If you highlight a jail and click "Jail Configuration", the screen shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? h will open.

Abbildung  Is there no version? h: Jail Configuration Options

The Options tab has one checkbox for enabling or disabling VNET/VIMAGE support. This option provides that jail with its own, independent networking stack. This allows the jail to do its own IP broadcasting, which is required by some applications. However, it breaks some other applications. If an application within a jail is having trouble with networking, try changing this option to see if it fixes the issue.

The IPv4 tab is shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? i.

Abbildung  Is there no version? i: Jail IPv4 Options

This screen allows you to configure the following:

IPv4 Address: uncheck this box if you do not want the jail to have an IPv4 address.

IPv4 Bridge Address (Requires VNET): if this box is checked, an IP address is input, and the "IPv4 Default Router" box is left unchecked, the bridge address will be used as the default gateway for the jail. If the "IPv4 Default Router" address is also configured, it will be used as the default gateway address and the bridge address will be used as just another address that is configured and reachable. This option requires the "Enable VNET/VIMAGE support" checkbox to be checked in the Options tab.

IPv4 Default Router: check this box and input an IP address if the jail needs a different default gateway address than that used by the PC-BSD® system. This option requires the "Enable VNET/VIMAGE support" checkbox to be checked in the Options tab.

The IPv6 tab is shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? j.

Abbildung  Is there no version? j: Jail IPv6 Options

This screen allows you to configure the following:

IPv6 Address: check this box if you want the jail to have an IPv6 address.

IPv6 Bridge Address (Requires VNET): if this box is checked, an IPv6 address is input, and the "IPv6 Default Router" box is left unchecked, the bridge address will be used as the default gateway for the jail. If the "IPv6 Default Router" address is also configured, it will be used as the default gateway address and the bridge address will be used as just another address that is configured and reachable. This option requires the "Enable VNET/VIMAGE support" checkbox to be checked in the Options tab.

IPv6 Default Router: check this box and input an IPv6 address if the jail needs a different default gateway address than that used by the PC-BSD® system. This option requires the "Enable VNET/VIMAGE support" checkbox to be checked in the Options tab.

The Aliases tab is shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? k.

Abbildung  Is there no version? k: Jail Aliases Options

Click the drop-down menu to see all of the options shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? k. An alias allows you to add additional IP addresses to an interface. Select the type of address you would like to add an alias to, click the Add button, type in the IP address to add and click OK.

The Permissions tab is shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? l. This screen can be used to easily enable or disable the sysctl values that are available for jails.

Abbildung  Is there no version? l: Jail Permissions

Info Tab

The "Info" tab, as seen in the example in Abbildung  Is there no version? m, provides an overview of a jail's configuration. If you have created multiple jails, the "Info" tab displays the configuration of the currently highlighted jail.

Abbildung  Is there no version? m: Info Tab of Warden®

In the example shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? m, three jails have been created: a traditional jail, a ports jail, and Debian Squeeze has been installed into a Linux jail.

The "Info" tab contains the following information:

  • Jail Type: will indicate if the jail is a Traditional, Ports, or Linux jail.
  • Size on Disk: indicates the amount of space being used by the jail. The jail itself takes up about 300MB of space, source is about 300MB, and ports are about 850MB.
  • Start at boot: a status of "Enabled" indicates that the jail will automatically start when the system reboots. "Disabled" means that you will manually start the jail as needed.
  • Active Connections: will list the number of active connections to the jail (e.g. through ssh or one of the running services).
  • IPs: lists the jail's IP address as well as any configured aliases.
  • Listening on Ports: indicates which ports are currently listening for connections.

You can sort the jail listing by clicking on the "Jail", "Status", or "Updates" header name. The "Updates" column will indicate if a software or system update is available for a jail.

Tools Tab

The "Tools" tab, shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? n, allows you to manage common configuration tasks within a jail.

WARNUNG Make sure that the desired jail is highlighted when using the "Tools" tab.
Abbildung  Is there no version? n: Tools Tab for the Highlighted Jail

This tab provides the following buttons:

  • AppCafe: opens [[AppCafe®/de|Translations:AppCafe®/Page display title/de]] so that you can install packages within the specified traditional or ports jail. Software installed using this method will be tracked by [[Update Manager/de|Translations:Update Manager/Page display title/de]], meaning that Warden® will be notified when updates are available for the installed software. Since BSD-based packages are not available for Linux jails, this button is not available if a Linux jail is highlighted.
  • User Administrator: opens [[User Manager/de|Translations:User Manager/Page display title/de]] so that you can manage the highlighted jail's user accounts and groups. The title bar will indicate that you are "Editing Users for Jail:Jailname". Note that any users and groups that you have created on your PC-BSD® system will not be added to a traditional jail as each traditional jail has its own users and groups. However, a ports jail has access to the users and groups that exist on the PC-BSD® system, yet the users you create on a ports jail will only be available within the ports jail. This button is not available if a Linux jail is highlighted.
  • Service Manager: opens [[Service Manager/de|Translations:Service Manager/Page display title/de]] so that you can view which services are running in the jail and configure which services should start when the jail is started. Note that this button is not available if a Linux jail is highlighted.
  • Launch Terminal: opens a terminal with the root user logged into the jail. This allows you to administer the jail from the command line. This button will be greyed out if the highlighted jail is not running. You can start a jail by right-clicking its entry and selecting "Start this Jail" from the menu or by clicking "Start Jail".
  • Check for Updates: launches [[Update Manager/de|Translations:Update Manager/Page display title/de]] to determine if any system updates are available to be installed into the jail. If an update is found, the text "Updates available!" will appear in the "Updates" column for that jail. Note that this button is not available if a Linux jail is highlighted.
  • Export Jail: launches a pop-up window prompting you to choose the directory in which to save a backup of the jail (and all of its software, configuration, and files) as a .wdn file. Creating the .wdn file may take some time, especially if you have installed src, ports, or software.

Snapshots Tab

The “Snapshots” tab, shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? o, is used to create and manage ZFS snapshots within the currently highlighted jail. The ZFS snapshot feature can be used to make point in time filesystem backups of jails. A snapshot is essentially a picture of what the filesystem looked like at that point in time. Snapshots are space efficient in that they take up zero space when created and the snapshot only grows in size as files contained within the snapshot are modified after the snapshot was taken. In other words, ZFS manages the changes between snapshots, providing a way to return to what a file looked like at the time a snapshot was taken.

Since jails share the filesystem used by PC-BSD®, any type of jail, including a Linux jail, can take advantage of this ZFS feature.

Abbildung  Is there no version? o: Snapshots Tab for the Highlighted Jail

To create a snapshot of the jail, click the "+Add" button. A snapshot indicating the date and time will be added to the slider bar. If you create multiple snapshots at different times, use the slider bar to select a snapshot.

Once you have created a snapshot, the following actions can be used to manage the snapshot. Make sure that the desired snapshot is highlighted in the slider bar before clicking these buttons:

  • Restore: returns the system to what it looked like at the time the snapshot was taken. Think about what you wish to accomplish before using this option as any changes to files that occurred after the snapshot was taken will be lost.
  • Add: use this button to create additional snapshots.
  • Remove: use this button to remove the highlighted snapshot.

This screen also allows you to schedule automatic snapshots. To enable this feature, check the box "Scheduled Snapshots". Use the drop-down menu to set the frequency to daily or hourly. You can also type in or use the arrows to configure the number of days to keep each snapshot.

Configure Menu

To refresh the settings for all jails, use ConfigureRefresh Jails.

To configure Warden®, click ConfigureSettings which will open the screen shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? p.

Abbildung  Is there no version? p: Warden® Configuration

This screen allows you to configure the following:

  • Jail Network Interface: all jails created within Warden® share the same physical interface. Use the drop-down menu to select the network interface to be used by the jails. Note that your jails may not work if the wrong interface is configured .
  • Jail Directory: contains all of the created jails where each jail has its own sub-directory named after its IP address. By default, it is /usr/jails. If you change this directory, make sure the location has sufficient space to hold the jails.
  • Temp Directory: used when exporting and importing jails. Make sure that the directory has sufficient space to create a tar file of the jail and its contents.

Right-Click Menu

If you highlight a jail, its right-click menu contains the following options:

  • Start or Stop this Jail: allows you to start a jail (if it is currently not running) or to stop a jail (if it is currently running). You will not be able to access a jail that has not been started. The icon next to the jail will change to indicate the current status.
  • Toggle Autostart: toggles a jail's Autostart between "Disabled" (does not automatically start when the PC-BSD® system is booted) and "Enabled" (will start the jail when the PC-BSD® system is booted). The "Info" tab will be updated to indicate the new "Start at boot" status. Note that toggling autostart will not affect the current running status of the jail (i.e. it does not start or stop the jail right now) as autostart is only used when the system boots.
  • Export jail to .wdn file: allows you to save the jail (and all of its software, configuration, and files) as a .wdn file. This allows you to quickly clone a pre-configured jail to a new jail on either the same or another PC-BSD® system. The exported jail will end with a .wdn extension and the filename will be the IP address of the jail. When exporting a jail, a pop-up window will prompt you to choose the directory in which to store the backup. A progress bar will indicate that the export is in progress. Creating the .wdn file may take some time, especially if you have installed src, ports, or software.
WARNUNG You should close all network connections to the jail before exporting it as Warden® will need to stop the jail in order to back it up. If your jail is running services (e.g. a webserver), export the jail at a time that will least impact network connections to the jail.
  • Clone this Jail: creates an instantaneous copy of the specified jail. It will prompt for a hostname for the new jail. Highlight the new clone and click “Jail Configuration” to set the addressing information for the new jail.
  • Delete Jail: removes the jail and all of its contents from the PC-BSD® system. You will be prompted to confirm this action.

Bold text

Importing a Jail

The "File" menu can be used to create a new jail, import a jail, create templates, or exit Warden®.

If you click FileImport Jail you will be prompted to browse to the location of a previously created .wdn file. After selecting the file, you will then see the screen shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? q.

Abbildung  Is there no version? q: Importing a Jail


Input a name for the new jail. If you are creating a new jail on the same system that still has the original jail installed, check the "IPv4 Address" box and input an unused IP address for the new jail. Then, check the box "Hostname" and input an unused hostname for the new jail. However, if you have deleted the original jail or need to restore that same jail on another computer (for example, there was a hardware failure on the system containing the original jail), you can choose to leave both boxes unchecked and to reuse the same IP address and hostname. Once you press OK, Warden® will recreate the jail with all of the original settings. Whether or not those settings include the original IP address and hostname depends upon your selections.

Using Template Manager

The built-in template manager can be used to create and manage jail templates. Once created, templates can be used when installing a new jail. A template specifies the version and architecture of FreeBSD to be used as the operating system running in the jail. Templates have been tested from FreeBSD versions 4.1.1 to FreeBSD-CURRENT. Until you create your own templates and specify them during jail creation, the default version and architecture of the operating system used in the jail will be the same as that running on the PC-BSD® system.

To create a template, click File ➜ Template Manager to see the screen shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? r.

Abbildung  Is there no version? r: Template Manager

The default icon will indicate the version of TrueOS® used by the underlying PC-BSD® system. To create a new template, click the + button. In the "System Type" drop-down menu select either:

  • TrueOS: adds the command line versions of the PC-BSD® utilities to the FreeBSD base.
  • FreeBSD: uses only the FreeBSD base without any of the PC-BSD® utilities.

Press OK to see the screen shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? s.

Abbildung  Is there no version? s: Select the Operating System Version

If desired, change the 10.0 in this example to the release number to use. If you selected FreeBSD as the system type, a list of available release numbers can be found on this FreeBSD webpage[6]. If you selected TrueOS, the list of available release numbers is currently limited to 9.0, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 10.0, and 10.1.

Press OK. In the "System Architecture" drop-down menu, select either amd64 (for 64-bit) or i386 (for 32-bit). Press OK and input a nickname for the template. Click OK and the files needed for that version will be downloaded. Once the template is created, it will appear in the Template Manager as seen in the example in Abbildung  Is there no version? t.

Abbildung  Is there no version? t: New Template Added

To delete a template, highlight it and click the - button. Note that Warden® will not let you delete a template if any jails exist which are using the template.

To use the template when creating a new jail, click the "Jail Version" drop-down menu shown in Abbildung  Is there no version? c and select the desired template.

Using the Command Line Version of Warden®

The Warden® GUI is based on a Bourne shell script. This script can be manually run from the command line on a PC-BSD® server or by users who prefer using the command line. Advanced users can also refer to the command line version in their own scripts.

If you type warden at the command line, you will receive a summary of its usage:

warden

Warden version 1.4

--------------------------------- Available commands Type in help <command> for information and usage about that command help - This help file gui - Launch the GUI menu auto - Toggles the autostart flag for a jail bspkgng - BootStrap pkgng and setup TrueOS repo checkup - Check for updates to a jail chroot - Launches chroot into a jail create - Creates a new jail details - Display usage details about a jail delete - Deletes a jail export - Exports a jail to a .wdn file fstab - Start users $EDITOR on jails custom fstab fbsdupdate - Update the FreeBSD world inside jail fbsdupgrade - Upgrade the version of FreeBSD inside a jail get - Gets options list for a jail import - Imports a jail from a .wdn file list - Lists the installed jails pkgupdate - Update packages inside a jail pkgs - Lists the installed packages in a jail pbis - Lists the installed pbi's in a jail set - Sets options for a jail start - Start a jail stop - Stops a jail type - Set the jail type (pbibox|pluginjail|portjail|standard) template - Manage jail templates snap - Jail snapshot management clone - Clone an existing jail to a new jail cronsnap - Schedule snapshot creation via cron


Each command has its own help text that describes its parameters and provides a usage example. For example, to receive help on how to use the warden create command, type:

warden help create

Warden version 1.4

--------------------------------- Help create Creates a new jail, with options for system source, ports and autostarting. Available Flags: -32 Create 32bit jail on 64bit system --autoipv4 Use the next available IPv4 address from the pool --ipv4=<ip/mask> Set primary IPv4 address for jail --ipv6=<ip/mask> Set primary IPv6 address for jail --archive <tar> Use specified tar file for BSD jail creation --bulk <number> Create <number> of new jails, using default IP4 pool or address pool specified with --ip4pool --ip4pool <address> Starting IPv4 address to use when creating jails in bulk --linuxjail <script> Make this a linux jail and use supplied script for installation --linuxarchive <tar> Use specified tar file for Linux jail creation --pluginjail Make this a pluginjail --ports Includes the ports tree --portjail Make this a portjail --src Includes /usr/src system source --startauto Start this jail at system boot --template <string> Specify a jail template to build with --vanilla Don't install PC-BSD pkgng repo and utilities --version <string> Use this instead of /etc/version Usage: warden create <JAILNAME> <flags> Example: warden create jailbird --ipv4=192.168.0.25/24 --src --ports --startauto

You do not need superuser access to use the view commands but will for any commands that create or manage a jail. The warden command will display an error message if a command requires superuser access and you currently are not the superuser. On PC-BSD®, you can put pc-su at the beginning of the warden command to be prompted for your password. On a FreeBSD server, you can type su to become superuser, then repeat the warden command.

Creating and Accessing a Jail

Before creating a jail, verify the network settings in /usr/local/etc/warden.conf:

#!/bin/sh # Configuration options for the Warden ###################################################################### # Network Interface for the jails to use NIC: # Directory to use for compressing / decompressing files WTMP: /usr/jails # Location of the jails JDIR: /usr/jails # When automatically creating jails with unspecified IPv4 addresses, use this # address at the starting point for new addresses IP4POOL: 192.168.0.220

You can either specify the FreeBSD interface name to use in the NIC field or specify the IP address range starting point with the IP4POOL field. When using IP4POOL on a network containing a DHCP server, ensure that the DHCP server has reserved the range of addresses to be used by jails in order to prevent IP address conflicts.

To create a jail, specify a unique IP address and hostname for the jail:

warden create jail1 --ipv4 10.0.0.1 DEF: 10.1-RELEASE amd64 Building new Jail... Please wait... <snip install messages> Success! Jail created at /usr/jails/jail1

Before you can access the jail, you will need to start it:

warden start jail1

As the jail starts, the SSH host keys will be generated and sshd will start. At this point, you can use the warden chroot command to access the jail from the host system. Alternately, to access the jail over the network using ssh, you will need to first create a user account.

To access the jail in order to create that user:

warden chroot jail1

Started shell session on jail1 . Type exit when finished.

adduser

Follow the prompts of the adduser script in order to create a user. When you get to the following prompt, do not press enter. Instead type in wheel so that the user can use the su command to become the superuser within the jail.

Login group is username. Invite username into other groups? [] wheel

When you are finished creating the user, you can type exit to exit the jail. Test that ssh works by specifying the username that you created:

ssh username@jail1

To create multiple jails simultaneously, use the --bulk <number> and --ip4pool <starting address> options to specify the number of jails and the starting IP address. Alternately, instead of –ip4pool, use the --autoipv4 option as it automatically assigns the next available IP address from the pool, as defined by the IP4POOL option in /usr/local/etc/warden.conf.

Managing Jails from the Command Line

Table a shows the command line equivalents to the graphical options provided by the Warden® GUI. To get usage examples for each command, insert help into the command. For example, to get help on the auto command, type warden help auto. Note that some options are only available from the command line.

Tabelle  Is there no version? a: Command Line and GUI Equivalents [Tabellen 1]
Command Line GUI Description
auto right-click highlighted jail and click Autostart toggles the jail's autostart between Enabled and Disabled
bspkgng in the GUI, this happens automatically during jail creation unless "Install PKGNG and PC-BSD utilities" is unchecked adds the PC-BSD® utilities to an existing jail
checkup in the GUI, update checks occur automaticaly and any un-applied updates are shown in the Updates column checks for updates to either the specified jail or all jails
chroot Tools ➜ Launch Terminal opens a terminal with the root user logged into the jail
create "+" button or File ➜ New Jail creates a new jail with specified attributes
details Info tab provides an overview of specified jail's configuration
delete "-" button or right-click jail ➜ Delete Jail deletes the specified jail
export right-click ➜ Export jail to .wdn file saves the specified jail and all of its software, configuration, and files as a .wdn file.
fbsdupdate Tools ➜ Check for Updates upgrades FreeBSD world with security fixes as well as any package updates
fbsdupgrade Tools ➜ Check for Updates upgrades FreeBSD to new version
fstab opens the jail's /etc/fstab in an editor
get configure (wrench) icon for highlighted jail lists the various IP addresses used by the jail
import File ➜ Import Jail import a previously created .wdn file
list "Installed Jails" section of GUI list all jails
pkgupdate Tools ➜ Check for Updates update all packages in specified jail
pkgs Tools ➜ AppCafe lists packages installed into specified jail
pbis lists PBIs installed into specified jail
set right-click jail used to set options, addresses, aliases, and permissions in specified jail
start right-click jail ➜ Start this Jail starts the specified jail
stop right-click jail ➜ Stop this Jail stops the specified jail
type "Jail Type" during jail creation types differ as choices are pbibox, portjail, pluginjail, or standard; to create a Linux jail, instead use the linuxjail option with the create command
template File ➜ Template Manager used to create, delete, or list templates
snap Snapshots snapshot management for specified jail
clone right-click ➜ Clone this Jail clones an existing jail
cronsnap Snapshots ➜ Scheduled Snapshots schedules ZFS snapshot creation



Translations:Using PC-BSD®/Page display title/de

Using PC-BSD®/de


Translations:Java, Flash, and Fonts/Page display title/de

Java, Flash, and Fonts/de


Translations:Multimedia/Page display title/de

Multimedia/de


Translations:Files and File Sharing/Page display title/de

Files and File Sharing/de


Translations:MythTV/Page display title/de

MythTV/de


Translations:XBMC/Page display title/de

XBMC/de


Translations:Windows Emulation/Page display title/de

Windows Emulation/de


Translations:Remote Desktop/Page display title/de

Remote Desktop/de


Translations:Thin Client/Page display title/de

Thin Client/de


OwnCloud

ownCloud[7] is open source software that allows you to create your own cloud storage. This allows you to share data, contacts, and calendars with other devices and users.

Figure 9.9a: Install the Required Packages

In PC-BSD®, you can create your own private cloud service by installing ownCloud either into a traditional jail that you created using Warden® or into a TrueOS® installation. For security reasons, installing ownCloud directly onto a desktop installation is not recommended, as the web and database services it requires may expose the desktop to security vulnerabilities. If you are installing ownCloud on a PC-BSD® system, create a traditional jail as it isolates the software installed into the jail from your desktop operating system.

Install and Start the Required Services

If you are installing ownCloud into a traditional jail, make sure that the jail has been started, then go to the “Tools” tab of the jail and click the “Package Manager” button as seen in the example in Figure 9.9a.

Check the boxes for databases ➜ mysql56-server, lang ➜ php55, and www ➜ apache24, then click the “Apply” button to install these packages.

Figure 9.9b: Start the Required Services

Once installed, go to Tools ➜ Service Manager which will open the screen shown in Figure 9.9b. Highlight the apache22 service and click the "Enable Service" button and then the "Start" button. Repeat for the mysql service.

Verify that you can reach the web server by typing the IP address of the jail into a web browser. You should receive an "It works!" message. You will need to first allow incoming TCP port 80 on the jail interface using Firewall Manager if you use a web browser on a different computer.

If you are installing ownCloud onto a TrueOS® system, you will need to create the jail and install the dependencies from the command line. When creating the jail, specify the jail IP address and hostname as seen in this example:

warden create 10.0.0.1 owncloudjail --startauto
pc-metapkgmanager --pkgset warden --chroot /usr/jails/10.0.0.1 add MySQL,Apache,
PHP
Figure 9.9c: ownCloud Initial Setup Screen

Once the software is installed, access the jail by its IP address in order to edit the /etc/rc.conf file within the jail so that the required services start when the jail is available:

warden chroot 10.0.0.1                                                           vi /etc/rc.conf

Add these two lines to that file:

apache22_enable=”YES”                                                           
mysql_enable=”YES”

Save your edits then start the services:

usr/local/etc/rc.d/apache22 start
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql-server start                                          

Verify that you can reach the web server by typing the IP address of the jail into a web browser. You should receive a "It works!" message. You will need to first edit /etc/pf.conf in order to allow incoming TCP port 80 using if you use a web browser on a different computer. An example would be to add a line to the "Nic specific rules" section:

pass in quick on re0 proto tcp from any to (re0) port 80 keep state             

You may wish to replace any with just the IP addresses of the systems on your network. re0 should be replaced with the interface used by the jail.

Configuring ownCloud

You are now ready to download and configure ownCloud. If you are using a traditional jail on your desktop, go to Tools -> Launch Terminal to access the jail's command line. If you are using TrueOS®, use the warden chroot command to access the command line of the jail.

Once at the command line of the jail, download ownCloud into the Apache data directory.

cd /usr/local/www/apache24/data
fetch http://download.owncloud.com/download/2012.4.5.12/owncloud-2012.4.5.12-enterprise.tar.bz2
tar xzvf owncloud-2012.4.5.12-enterprise.tar.bz2
chown -R www:www owncloud

Next, configure the MySQL database, substituting ocuser and mypass with the username and password that you wish to use:

mysql -u root
mysql> create database owncloud;
mysql> grant all on owncloud.* to ocuser@localhost identified by "mypass";
mysql> quit

Next, add the required PHP options to Apache. Open /usr/local/etc/apache24/httpd.conf in an editor and look for this line:

#AddType application/x-gzip .tgz

Add the following lines directly below that line:

AddType application/x-httpd-php .php
AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps

Then, look for the following section:

<IfModule dir_module>
  DirectoryIndex index.html
</IfModule>

and change it to:

<IfModule dir_module>
  DirectoryIndex index.html index.php
</IfModule>
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/apache24 restart                                            
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql-server restart
Save your changes and restart the Apache and MySQL services.

Test your changes from a web browser by adding "owncloud" to the end of the IP address of the jail. For example, type http://10.0.0.1/owncloud/. You should see the setup screen shown in Figure 9.9c.

Figure 9.9d: ownCloud Interface

Input the name of the user and password that will be used to administer ownCloud, then click the " "Advanced" button. In the advanced settings, click the "MySQL" tab and input the MySQL username, password, and database name that you configured previously. Click the “Finish setup” button to save your changes and enter your new cloud interface -- shown in Figure 9.9d.

Click the left panel of the interface to access a type of media. For example, if you click "Files" and then the "New" button, you can upload a file, folder, or from a URL. If you click "Contacts", you can add a contact or import/export the address book.

Click the "Settings" icon at the bottom of the left panel to add users, configure applications, change the administrative configuration, and to access "Help".

Instructions for synchronizing the calendar and address book, integrating with a file manager, and integrating with a media player can be found in the documentation section of the ownCloud website[8]. Synchronization clients are available from the owncloud site[9].



Translations:Security/Page display title/de

Security/de


Translations:Accessibility/Page display title/de

Accessibility/de


Translations:Finding Help/Page display title/de

Finding Help/de


Translations:PC-BSD® Forums/Page display title/de

PC-BSD® Forums/de


Translations:IRC Channel/Page display title/de

IRC Channel/de


Translations:Mailing Lists/Page display title/de

Mailing Lists/de


Translations:FreeBSD Handbook and FAQ/Page display title/de

FreeBSD Handbook and FAQ/de


Translations:Social Media/Page display title/de

Social Media/de


Translations:Search and Portals/Page display title/de

Search and Portals/de


Translations:Other Resources/Page display title/de

Other Resources/de


Translations:Supporting PC-BSD®/Page display title/de

Supporting PC-BSD®/de


Werden Sie eine Beta-Testerin oder ein Beta-Tester

Flat html/content/de


Werden Sie eine Übersetzerin oder ein Übersetzer

Flat html/de/de/10.1.2


Werden Sie eine Entwicklerin oder ein Entwickler

Become a Developer/content/de


Melden Sie Fehler

Have you found a bug in PC-BSD®? If so, please take the time to read through this section to ensure that your bug gets reported to the correct group and is resolved in a timely fashion.

First, determine the type of bug that you are encountering. Is it a bug that is preventing you from properly installing and running PC-BSD® (a system bug), or is it an issue with an installed software package such as FireFox (an application bug)?

An application bug can fall into a few different categories.

Application Packaging Bug

The first is a packaging bug, which is when you can not install the application or it simply crashes on startup. Please report these types of bugs by logging into the Trac Database[10] and clicking "New Ticket". In the "Type" drop-down menu select "PBI Packaging Bug" and select the operating system version you are using in the "Version" drop-down menu. Use descriptive words in the "Summary". In the "Description", provide as much detail as possible about the bug, such as:

  • the name of the program
  • a detailed description of the bug, including any error messages and which commands or menus you used to generate the error

If you would like to include a screenshot of the error or a log that includes error messages, check the box "I have files to attach to this ticket" to browse to the location of the attachment. Use the "Preview" button to read through your ticket to make sure that the information is clear to the person who will resolve the issue. When finished, click the "Create ticket" button to submit your bug report.

Application Runtime Bug

An application runtime bug occurs when an application installs and is able to start successfully, but during use, it crashes or exhibits some other type of undesired behavior. An example would be OpenOffice failing to import a type of document properly or a chat client unable to keep a connection to a network.

If you installed the application using AppCafe® and you think that the problem is related to how the PBI was packaged, report the bug on the PBI Discussion Forum[11]. If you suspect that the problem is with the underlying FreeBSD port, you can use FreshPorts.org to determine the email address of the port maintainer. If you do email the port maintainer, indicate the name of the port, any error messages that you receive and how to reproduce the bug, and indicate if you are able to assist the maintainer in testing any patches to the port. Once the port is fixed, let the PBI Discussion Forum know so that the PBI can be rebuilt using the fixed port.

System Driver Bugs

A system bug is any bug which prevents the initial installation of PC-BSD®, or causes issues with hardware. Some examples would be a non-bootable system, failed installation, missing drivers for your hardware, or a non-functional desktop after installation. To report this type of issue please follow the instructions below for your type of system bug.

An example of a system driver bug would be a missing network driver, no sound output, or no disk drives detected. Most of these types of issues are directly related to the FreeBSD base upon which PC-BSD® is built, and are best fixed by discussing them with the FreeBSD team directly. Reporting a bug to FreeBSD can be done using the Send PR[12] page. You should also search the FreeBSD mailing lists as other users may have already discovered the bug or have a work-around for your particular hardware. Below are some of the related mailing lists:

  • ACPI[13]: power management and ACPI development
  • Emulation[14]: place to discuss Linux, VirtualBox, Wine and Linux Flash plugin support
  • USB[16]: USB support and development
  • Xorg[17]: Xorg and video drivers and development

System Installation Bugs

Any bugs encountered during the installation of PC-BSD® should be reported to the Trac Database[18], with as much detail as possible, including:

  • PC-BSD® version
  • hardware information, disk and partition sizes, amount of RAM and CPU
  • description of any defaults that you changed using the installer's "Customize" button
  • attach a copy of your saved /tmp/pc-sysinstall.log; if you did not save it during the installation, a copy was saved for you to /root/pc-sysinstall.log



Translations:Submit PBI Requests/Page display title/de

Submit PBI Requests/de


Translations:Test PBIs/Page display title/de

Test PBIs/de


Create PBIs

PBI Module Builder Guide/de


Translations:Purchase PC-BSD® Swag/Page display title/de

Purchase PC-BSD® Swag/de


Spiegelserver hosten

We are always interested in more download mirrors. If you have a system with a high-speed connection, 350-500GB of space, and the ability to rsync with a host, you can greatly help the PC-BSD® project and PC-BSD® users by becoming a mirror. More mirrors means faster download speeds and more geographic locations for users to download from.

This rsync command will mirror the entire collection of installation files and PBIs:

rsync -vaz --delete-delay --delay-updates isc.pcbsd.org::ftp .

That command should be run as a cron job with a recommended frequency of at least once daily with a preferred interval of every 12 hours.

Once you have begun the rsync process, send an email to kris at pcbsd dot org letting him know the URL of the mirror so that the new mirror can get listed and become available to users.



Translations:Seed a Torrent/Page display title/de

PC-BSD® is also distributed as a torrent[19] and you can increase download speeds for other users by seeding, especially during the first two weeks after a new release. If you are new to seeding, read through the GotBSD FAQ[20] first.

The Network-P2P category of AppCafe® provides several torrent utilities including:



Translations:Become an Advocate/Page display title/de

Become an Advocate/de

Verweise


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  1. Tabelle  Is there no version? a: Command Line and GUI Equivalents

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