Files and File Sharing/10.1
This section describes the various file managers that are available for managing the files on your PC-BSD® system and the utilities that are available for accessing files over the network using the CIFS protocol.
File Managers and File Structure
Depending upon which window managers you have installed, different graphical file manager utilities may already be installed for you. You do not need to be logged into a specific window manager to use an installed file manager. For example, if KDE is installed, you can run its file manager from any window manager by typing dolphin. KDE, GNOME, LXDE, and XFCE install their own file managers while most of the other desktops assume that you will install your favorite file manager. Table 9.3a summarizes the available file managers and indicates which desktop they are installed with. Some file managers can be installed independent of a desktop using AppCafe® to install the PBI. Once a file manager is installed, type its name if you wish to run it from another desktop.
When working with files on your PC-BSD system, save your own files to your home directory. Since most of the files outside of your home directory are used by the operating system and applications, you should not delete or modify any files outside of your home directory, unless you know what you are doing.
Table 9.3b summarizes the directory structure found on a PC-BSD system. man hier explains this directory structure in more detail.
|/||pronounced as "root" and represents the beginning of the directory structure|
|/bin/||applications (binaries) that were installed with the operating system|
|/boot/||stores the startup code, including kernel modules (such as hardware drivers)|
|/compat/linux/||Linux software compatibility files|
|/dev/||files which are used by the operating system to access devices|
|/etc/||operating system configuration files|
|/etc/X11/||the xorg.conf configuration file|
|/etc/rc.d/||operating system startup scripts|
|/home/||subdirectories for each user account; each user should store their files in their own home directory|
|/lib/||operating system libraries needed for applications|
|/libexec/||operating system libraries and binaries|
|/media/||mount point for storage media such as DVDs and USB drives|
|/mnt/||another mount point|
|/proc/||the proc filesystem required by some Linux applications|
|/rescue/||necessary programs for emergency recovery|
|/root/||administrative account's home directory|
|/sbin/||operating system applications; typically only the superuser can run these applications|
|/tmp/||temporary file storage; files stored here may disappear when the system reboots|
|/usr/bin/||contains most of the command line programs available to users|
|/usr/local/||contains the binaries, libraries, startup scripts, documentation, and configuration files used by applications installed from ports or packages|
|/usr/pbi/||contains the binaries, libraries, startup scripts, documentation, and configuration files used by installed PBIs|
|/usr/local/share/fonts/||system wide fonts for graphical applications|
|/usr/local/share/icons/||system wide icons|
|/usr/ports/||location of system ports tree (if installed)|
|/usr/share/||system documentation and man pages|
|/usr/sbin/||command line programs for the superuser|
|/usr/src/||location of system source code (if installed)|
|/var/||files that change (vary), such as log files and print jobs|
allows any operating system to share volumes using Microsoft's CIFS protocol. There are two components to Samba:
- client libraries: this allows an operating system to access existing CIFS shares. The client is built into the Windows and Mac OS X operating systems and is installed for you during the PC-BSD installation. Most Linux distros also install the Samba client; if your Linux distro does not, search its software repository.
- server: this allows a computer to act like a Windows server in that it can create shares and printers that are available to any CIFS client on the same network.
This section will demonstrate how to access shares using the Samba client as well as how to configure your PC-BSD system as a Samba server.
Using the Samba Client
Since the Samba client libraries are pre-installed for you, you simply have to decide which utility you prefer to access existing Windows shares on your network. If a desktop is installed, you do not have to be logged into that desktop in order to use that utility.
Table 9.3c summarizes the available utilities (type a utility's name to launch it in any desktop), which desktop it installs with and whether or not a separate PBI is available, and a short description of how to access the available shares using that utility.
|Utility||Desktop/PBI||How to Access Existing Shares|
|dolphin||KDE||in the left frame, click on Network → Samba Shares, then the Workgroup name; if the network requires a username and password to browse for shares, set this in Control Panel → System Settings → Sharing while in KDE or type systemsettings → Sharing while in another desktop|
|konqueror||KDE||in the location bar, type smb:/|
|mucommander||PBI||click on Go → Connect to server → SMB; input the NETBIOS name of server, name of share, name of domain (or workgroup), and the share's username and password|
|nautilus||GNOME||click on Go → Browse Network → Windows Network|
|thunar||XFCE, PBI||in the left frame, click on Network → Windows Network|
Configuring the Samba Server
NEEDS TO BE FIXED FOR 10.1--NOT INCLUDED IN 10.0.2 HANDBOOK AND NO SENSE TRANSLATING THIS SECTION UNTIL FIXED
If you would like to share folders or a printer attached to your PC-BSD® system with other users in your network, install and configure the built-in Samba server. The commands in this section require you to become the superuser or to use sudo.
In order to create shares, Samba's configuration file,, needs to be created. If you already have a working configuration file for Samba4, copy it to /usr/local/etc/smb4.conf and reload Samba by typing service samba_server restart.
If you need to create a working configuration file, first enablewhich provides a graphical utility for configuring Samba4 through a web browser.
To enable SWAT2,
To connect to SWAT2, open a web browser and input the IP address of the PC-BSD computer followed by :901. When prompted, input the username root and the password associated with the superuser account. In the example shown in Figure 9.3a, the user has clicked on the "Globals" button in order to view the global settings.
One of the nice features of SWAT is the built-in help system. If you need more information about an option, simply click its "Help" hyperlink to access that section of the Samba documentation. The "shares" button allows you to quickly create shares and the "view" button allows you to review the current configuration.
List of Tables
- Table 9.3a: Available File Managers
- Table 9.3b: PC-BSD Directory Structure